Yūpa skambha on Kudurru of Marduk-zâkir-šumi is an Indus Script hypertext which rewrites Eurasian Itihāsa of Bronze Age

Yūpa skambha of Bijnor fire-altar signifies performance of Soma Samsthā yajña. (3rd millennium BCE)

Yūpa skambha on Kudurru of Marduk-zâkir-šumi signifies a smelter to produce steel. (10th cent. BCE)

Yūpa skambha on Amaravati sculptural friezes and 5 Yūpa skambha inscriptions of East Borneo (Mulavarman) signify Soma Samsthā yajña and iron mintwork. (5th cent. BCE)

Yūpa skambha (Indra dhvaja) on Ancient Indian coins attest to sacredness of the hieroglyph in mintwork (4th cent. BCE)

These evidences of Bronze Age are presented in two sections of this monograph: 

Section A: Yūpa skambha on Kudurru of Marduk-zâkir-šumi
Section B: Yūpa skambha on Amaravati sculptural friezes

Both the sections demonstrate that the Yūpa skambha proclaims performance of a Soma Samsthā yajña of Veda tradition -- sacred memories of which are cherished in Babylonia (Ancient Near East) and Amaravati (Ancient Far East). 

The 820 BCE evidence of Yūpa skambha on Kudurru of Marduk-zâkir-šumi attests a sacred memory of the performance of of Soma Samsthā yajña of Veda tradition by the Marut ancestors of Marduk-zâkir-šumi

The 5th cent. BCE evidence of Five Yūpa skambha inscriptions in East Borneo of Mūlavarman attest the performance of Soma Samsthā yajña of Veda tradition. 

The 5th cent. BCE evidence of Yūpa skambha sculptural friezes of Amaravati attest the performance of Soma Samsthā yajña of Veda tradition. 

The 3rd millennium BCE evidence of an octagonal Yūpa skambha in Binjor (4MSR) attests the performance of Soma Samsthā yajña of Veda tradition. 

Numismatic evidences attest to the sacredness attached to Yūpa skambha by depicting symbols of Indra dhvaja of Veda tradition, on ancient Indian coins (ca. 300 BCE).

Thus, the Veda tradition of millennia prior to 3rd millennium BCE of performance of yajña explain the divine status of Rudra-bhāga which is of octagonal shape fiery Yūpa skambha.

See: https://tinyurl.com/z2q2rk6  Binjor Indus Script Seal & Mulavarman yupa inscription, relate to yajna for बहुसुवर्णक, bahusuvarṇaka, 'to possess many gold piecess'.

Section A: Yūpa skambha on Kudurru of Marduk-zâkir-šumi
File:AO 6684 deed of gift of Marduk-zākir-šumi.jpg
Kudurru of the 2nd year of the reign of Marduk-zākir-šumi I recording a religious bequest to the Eanna temple in Uruk.
The kudurru[grants Ibni-Ištar, a kalû-priest of the temple of Eanna in Uruk, land by Marduk-zâkir-šumi, is dated to the second year.of Marduk-zâkir-šumi, inscribed PA-za-kir-MU in a reconstruction of two kinglists, a king of Babylon 855-819 BCE
AO_6684_deed_of_gift_of_Marduk-zākir-šumi.jpg ‎Revue d'Assyriologie vol. 16 F. Thureau-Dangin
Marduk zakir Sumi and Ibni Ishtar are shown on the Kudurru:
http://www.etana.org/sites/default/files/coretexts/20257.pdf Babylonian boundary stones and memorial tablets in the British Museum, 1912.

Kudurrru are entitlement narûs (steles or stone monuments) in association with the temple. These are sculpted stone monuments documenting entitlements, not boundary markers.

The hieroglyphs on the Kudurru are: 1. Fire altar and black drongo; 2. Arrow; 3. Numeral 2 strokes; 4. Yūpa skambha; 5. Aquatic bird atop a pillar 

These are Indus Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts with meanings as given below 

I suggest that the tradition of Indus Script cipher continues as a sacred memory venerated among the Assur and Maruttta (gveda marut, asur) lineage in Ancient Near East. 
See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2017/07/indus-script-hypertext-makara-rebus.html Mirror: https://tinyurl.com/yb2nabnf 

1. Fire altar and black drongo kanda 'fire-altar'; also, वेदि f. (later also वेदी ; for 1. 2. » col.2) an elevated (or according to some excavated) piece of ground serving for a sacrificial altar (generally strewed with कुश grass , and having receptacles for the sacrificial fire ; it is more or less raised and of various shapes , but usually narrow in the middle , on which account the female waist is often compared to it) RV. &c

Image result for Dicrurus aterHieroglyph: Black drongo bird: పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu) పసి (p. 730) pasi pasi. [from Skt. పశువు.] n. Cattle. పశుసమూహము, గోగణము. The smell of cattle, పశ్వాదులమీదిగాలి, వాసన. పసిపట్టు pasi-paṭṭu. To scent or follow by the nose, as a dog does a fox. పసిగొను to trace out or smell out. వాసనపట్టు. మొసలి కుక్కను పసిపట్టి when the crocodile scented the dog. పసులు pasulu. n. plu. Cattle, గోవులు. పసిగాపు pasi-gāpu. n. A herdsman, గోపకుడు పసితిండి pasi-tinḍi. n. A tiger, పెద్దపులి. పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత. Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens. వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.) పసులవాడు pasula-vāḍu. n. A herdsman, గొల్లవాడు. 

"With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongo
Rebus: Bolad (alternatively spelled PuladPulatPolat, or Polad in Persian and Turkic languages) is common given name among the Inner Asian peoples. The meaning of the word Bolad is "steel". In Khalkha Mongolian form of the word is Boldhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolad_(given_name)

pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel'  पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) ولاد polād, s.m. (6th) The finest kind of steel. Sing. and Pl. folād P فولاد folād or fūlād, s.m. (6th) Steel. Sing. and Pl. folādī P فولادي folādī or fūlādī, adj. Made of steel, steel. (Pashto) pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद्  मृदुलोहविशेषः m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād).pŏlödi pōlödi  phōlödi (= )
 लोहविशेषमयः adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Rām. 19, 974, 167, pōo) pŏlāduwu  शस्त्रविशेषमयः adj. (f. pŏlādüvü made of steel (H. v, 4).(Kashmiri). Polad, bulat crucible steel: 'Schrader gives a list of names for 'steel' related to Pers. pulAd; Syr. pld; Kurd. pila, pola, pulad; Pehl. polAwat; Armen. polovat; Turk. pala; Russ. bulat; Mizdzhegan polad, bolat; Mongol. bolot, bulat, buriat. He is unable to suggest an origin for these words. Fr. Muller pointed out that the Pehlevi and Armenian should be polapat and suggested Greek 'much-beaten' as the original word...not all the countries of Asia had been exhausted in search for similar names...by adding Tibetan p'olad, Sulu bAlan, Tagalog patalim, Ilocano paslip, we at once see that the origin of the word may lie to the east. Naturally one thinks of China as the possible point of issue, for there steel was known in the third millenium before our era and we have the positive reference to steel in a Chinese writer of the fifth century BCE...Cantonese dialect fo-lim, literally 'fire-sickle'..."(Wiener, Leo, 2002, Contributions toward a history of Arabico-Gothc culture, vol.4, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. xli-xlii). "There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging." https://www.scribd.com/doc/268526061/Wootz-Steel-Indian-Institute-of-Science Wootz Steel, Indian Institute of Science
2. kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus:khaṇḍa 'implements'
3. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'metal casting'
4, Yūpa skambha, with the ligature of a 'tiger' at the top of the pillar.  kola 'tiger' kole.l 'smithy, forge' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'temple'. The animal could also be a ram as on the Mel Shipak kudurru. In this case, the reading is: miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.), mRdu 'iron' (Samskrtam)  मृदा--कर [p= 830,2] m. a thunderbolt W. Thus, the hypertext signifies an iron smelter. mṛdu

मृदु 'a kind of iron' (Apte)

'Indra dhvaja, fiery flaming pillar' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint. Ka. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) 
5. करण्ड, कारण्ड [p= 274,3] m. a sort of duck R. vii , 31 , 21 Rebus:करण्ड m. a sword L.; करडा karaḍā Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.; The arrangement of bars or embossed lines (plain or fretted with little knobs) raised upon a तार of gold by pressing and driving it upon the अवटी or grooved stamp. Such तार is used for the ornament बुगडी, for the hilt of a पट्टा or other sword &c. Applied also to any similar barform or line-form arrangement (pectination) whether embossed or indented; as the edging of a rupee &c. ;  खरड (p. 113) kharaḍa f (खरडणें) A hurriedly written or drawn piece; a scrawl; a mere tracing or rude sketch; खरडणें (p. 113) kharaḍaṇēṃ v c To scrape or rub off roughly: also to abrade or graze. 2 To rub up; to grub up; to root out (grass, weeds &c.) by pushing the instrument along. 3 To shave roughly, to scrape: also to write roughly, to scrawl: also to jot or note down; to make brief memoranda: also to draw roughly; to plough roughly; to grind roughly &c. &c; खरडा (p. 113) also खरडें n A scrawl; a memorandum-scrap. 

http://www.bu.edu/asor/pubs/jcs/52/slanski.pdf Kathryn E. Slanski, "Classification, historiography and monumental authority: the Babylonian entitlement narus (kudurrus)"
Kathryn E. Slanski, 2003, The Babylonian Entitlement Narus: A Study in Form and Function (ASOR Books) 
Marduk-apla-iddina I – Detail from a kudurru of Marduk-apla-iddina I. 
 Marduk-apla-iddina I – Kudurru of Marduk-apla-iddina I 
"Marduk-apla-iddina I, contemporarily written in cuneiform as dAMAR. UTU-IBILA-SUM-na and meaning in Akkadian, Marduk has given an heir, was the 34th Kassite king of Babylon ca. There is evidence of thriving commerce in woolen garments with Assyrian traders, the Chronicle of the Market Prices references his 21st year, but neither king with this name ruled longer than 13 years. Like his two predecessors, some of the economic texts show a curious double-dating formula which has yet to be satisfactorily explained. The Synchronistic King List gives his Assyrian contemporary as Ninurta-apal-Ekur, which is unlikely as he is shown against the earlier two Kassite kings, despite his short reign. Several inscribed kudurrus, or boundary stones, survive which document large donations of land, marduk-zākir-šumi, the bēl pīḫati, or provincial governor, was the beneficiary of a piece of land as a perquisite from the king. His responsibilities included inspector of temple and land and controller of forced labor, one of the witnesses was Nabû-šakin-šumi, also described as “son of” Arad-Ea. Another stele records that Ina-Esağila-zēra-ibni, “son of” Arad-Ea, measured a field, the symbol of the stylus, representing the god of writing and wisdom, Nabû, makes its first appearance on one of his kudurrus. Around eighteen kudurrus could be assigned to his reign based upon the art-history of their iconography, the following lists those which actually identify him as the monarch in their texts."

"The Land grant to Marduk-zākir-šumi kudurru is an ancient Mesopotamiannarû, or entitlement stele, recording the gift (irīmšu) of 18 bur 2 eše[1] (about 120 hectares or 300 acres) of corn-land by Kassite king of Babylon Marduk-apla-iddina I (ca. 1171–1159 BC) to his bēl pīḫati (inscribed EN NAM and meaning "person responsible"), or a provincial official.[2] The monument is significant in part because it shows the continuation of royal patronage in Babylonia during a period when most of the near East was beset by collapse and confusion, and in part due to the lengthy genealogy of the beneficiary, which links him to his illustrious ancestors."
The monument is a large rectangular block of limestone with a base of 51 by 30.5 cm and a height of 91 cm, or around 3 foot, with a broken top making it the tallest of the extant kudurrus[3]and has intentionally flattened sides.[4]It was recovered from the western bank of the Tigris opposite Baghdad[5] and acquired by George Smith for the British Museum while on his 1873–74 expedition to Nineveh sponsored by the Daily Telegraph. It was originally given the collection reference D.T. 273 and later that of BM 90850. The face has three registers featuring eighteen symbolic representations of gods (listed below identifying the corresponding deity) and the back has three columns of text (line-art pictured right).
First register:
Second register:

  • Bird on a perch, the Kassite deitiesŠuqamuna & Šumalia
  • Reclining ox beneath lightning fork, Adad
  • Spear-head behind horned dragon, Marduk
  • Wedge supported by horned dragon before shrine, Nabû
Third register:
  • Horned serpent spanning register, uncertain
  • Turtle, uncertain
  • Ram-headed crook above goat-fish, Ea
  • Winged dragon stepping on hind part of serpent, uncertain
The land grant was situated west of the river Tigris in the province of Ingur-Ištar, one of perhaps twenty-two pīḫatus or provinces known from the Kassite period,[6] and was bordered by estates belonging to the (house of) Bīt-Nazi-Marduk and Bīt-Tunamissaḫ, perhaps Kassite nobility.

Cast of characters

  • Marduk-apla-iddina, the king, donor
  • Marduk-zākir-šumi, bēl-pīḫati, beneficiary. His secondary titles included ˹pa˺-˹]-id ÉRIN giDUSU: officer of the troops of the charioteers[7]
His ancestors:
  • Nabû-nadin-aḫḫē, his father
  • Rimeni-Marduk, grandfather
  • Uballissu-Marduk, great-grandfather, an accountant during the reign of Kurigalzu II, whose cylinder seals shed further light on his ancestors, naming his forebears Uššur-ana-Marduk as šandabakku or governor of Nippur and Usi-ana-nuri-? as viceroy of Dilmun (ancient Bahrain)
  • Arad-Ea, patriarchal figure of the clan and his great-great-grandfather
  • Ninurta-apla-iddina, son of Adad-naṣir šakin or governor of the province of Engur-Ištar
  • Nabû-naṣir, son of Nazi-Marduk, sukallu a court official, messenger or vizier[8]
  • Nabû-šakin-šumi, son of Arad-Ea, DU.GAB, “charioteer”

Section B: Yūpa skambha on Amaravati sculptural friezes

Fiery yajñasya ketu, Yūpa skambhaIndra dhvaja, flagstaff proclaims Soma Samsthā yajña

The skambha is an Indus Script hypertext variously depicted as Indra dhvaja on sculptures and ancient coins.

The Skambha is Rudra-śiva. The Skambha is octagonal in shape and hence the Rudra-bhāga of amocpmoc śivalinga is octagonal in shape. 

The ruśantam ketum = jvalantam ketum is an attribute of Yūpa skambha which is a blazing flame as depicted iconographically on Amaravati friezes.
Naga worshippers of fiery pillar, Amaravati stup  Smithy is the temple of Bronze Age: stambha, thãbharā fiery pillar of light, Sivalinga. 
Rebus-metonymy layered Indus script cipher signifies: tamba, tã̄bṛā, tambira 'copper' 

meḍ 'to dance' (F.)[reduplicated from me-]; me id. (M.) in Remo (Munda)(Source: D. Stampe's Munda etyma) meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon (Te.); meṭṭu step (Ga.); mettunga steps (Ga.). maḍye to trample, tread (Malt.)(DEDR 5057) మెట్టు (p. 1027) [ meṭṭu ] meṭṭu. [Tel.] v. a. &n. To step, walk, tread. అడుగుపెట్టు, నడుచు, త్రొక్కు. "మెల్ల మెల్లన మెట్టుచుదొలగి అల్లనల్లనతలుపులండకు జేరి." BD iv. 1523. To tread on, to trample on. To kick, to thrust with the foot.మెట్టిక meṭṭika. n. A step , మెట్టు, సోపానము (Telugu) rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽtmeḍ 'iron,copper' (Samskrtam.Ho.Mu.Santali.Slavic)
स्कम्भ [p= 1257,1] m. a prop , support , pillar , buttress , fulcrum , the Fulcrum of the Universe (personified in AV. x , 7 and x , 8 , and identified with ब्रह्मन् , the Supreme Being , as well as with पुरुष ; » Muir's Sanskrit Texts , v , 378RV. AV. (Monier-Williams)

skambha, 'flaming pillar' (Atharvaveda), rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.
Railing crossbar with monks worshiping a fiery pillar, a symbol of the Buddha, , Great Stupa of Amaravati

Railing crossbar with monks worshiping a fiery pillar, a symbol of the Divine.

The descriptive expression in RV 10.1.5 refers to the  Yūpa as ruśantam ketum. The word ruśantam is explained as: jvalantam derived from ज्वलत् [p= 428,2] m. blazing fire , flame Ka1m.;  ज्वल [p= 428,2] [L=80891]m. ( Pa1n2. 3-1 , 140) flame W.; ज्वल्[p= 428,2] cl.1 P. ज्व्/अलति (ep. also A1. ; p. °लत् ; aor. अज्वालीत् Pa1n2. 7-2 , 2 ; 3. pl. अज्वलिषुर् Bhat2t2. xv , 106) to burn brightly , blaze , glow , shine TS. i S3Br. Gobh. MBh. &c  ; to burn (as a wound) Sus3r. : Caus. ज्वलयति or ज्वाल्° , to set on fire , light , kindle , make radiant , illuminate GopBr. ii , 5 , 5 (A1.) MBh. &c : Intens. जाज्वलति ( MBh. ) or °ल्यते ( Pa1n2. 3-1 , 22 Ka1s3. ; p. °ल्यमान) to flame violently , shine strongly , be brilliant MBh. R. VP. iii , 2 , 10 Ra1jat. i , 154. Thus, the synonym of jvalantam in RV 10.1.5 which is ruśantam is cognate with रुशना [p= 885,1] f. N. of one of the wives of रुद्र BhP.  रुशन्तम्-केतुम् is a descriptive epithet of the Yūpa skambha which is a metaphor for Rudra-śiva.

 चि॒त्रर॑थमध्व॒रस्य॑ य॒ज्ञस्य॑यज्ञस्य के॒तुं रुश॑न्तम्  प्रत्य॑र्धिं दे॒वस्य॑देवस्य म॒ह्ना श्रि॒या त्व१॒॑ग्निमति॑थिं॒जना॑नाम् 
hotāra citraratham adhvarasya yajñasya-yajñasya ketu ruśantam | pratyardhi devasya-devasya mahnā śriyā tv agnim atithi janānām || (RV 10.1.5)

(अध्वरस्य यज्ञस्य-यज्ञस्य होतारम्) अहिंसनीयस्य-अबाध्यस्य यज्ञमात्रस्य जीवनयज्ञस्य होमयज्ञस्य च सम्पादयितारम् 
(रुशन्तम्-केतुम्) ज्वलन्तं सर्वप्रेरकं सूर्यम् 
(चित्ररथम्) दर्शनीयमण्डलवन्तं तथा 
(देवस्य देवस्य प्रत्यर्धिम्) द्योतमानस्य ग्रहनक्षत्रादिकस्य “देवः-द्युस्थानो भवतीति वा” [निरुo ७।१६] दिव्यपदार्थस्य ज्ञानिनो जनस्य च प्रतिवर्धकम् 
(जनानां मह्ना श्रिया तु-अतिथिम्) जन्यमानानां प्राणिनां स्वमहत्या कान्त्या दीप्त्या क्षिप्रं निरन्तरं गमनशीलं प्रवेशकर्त्तारम् 
(अग्निम्) सूर्यरूपं बृहन्तमग्निं वयं सेवेमहि 

Wilson/Sāyaṇa: (We worship) Agni for prosperity, you, who are the invoker of the gods, the many-coloured conveyance of the offering, the brilliant banner of every offering, the surpasser of every other deity in might, the guest of men. 

Griffith translation: Priest of the holy rite, with car that glitters, refulgent banner of each act of worship, Sharing every God through might and glory, even Agni guest of men I summon hither.

Rudra is the octagonal rudrabhāga of Śivalinga which is a skambha or Yūpa (also called Indra dhvaja) topped by a caṣāla. 

caṣāla is signified by the 'snout of a boar' as metonymy, metaphor for yajña puruṣa and all Veda-s (See the snout of a boar with the frieze of Sarasvati, vāk divinity).  

Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa describes caṣāla as godhūma, 'wheat chaff'. Fumes of the wheat chaff from the fiery pillar of light are intended to infuse carbon to harden the smelted metal in a furnace.

Metallurgical association with the ādhyātmikā metaphors of Gaṇeśa, Rudra-Śiva are echoed in ancient texts and ādhyātmikā traditions.

In Indian iconography, sons of Rudra are marut-s disgorged by makara ‘composite animal’.  https://tinyurl.com/yb2nabnf 

Ancient Coins - INDIA, ERIKACHHA: Mitrasena copper coin. Very Rare.
Erich (Erikachha) city state
Mitrasena, c. 2nd century BC
AE coin (16 mm, 3.49 g)
Obverse: Brahmi legend in two lines Rajno Mitasenasa
Reverse: Yupa (sacrificial altar) in a railing
Ref: Pieper 520 Erikachha was an ancient Indian city state famous for issuing copper coins using three different manufacturing techniques: punchmarked (as in this specimen), cast and die-struck. King Mitrasena is known only from his coins. This specimen is boldly struck with his name Mitasenasa clearly visible.

A variant of this hypertext pictorial motif occurs on punch-marked coins:

Malwa, clay sealing
Weight:  4.48 gm., Dimensions: 20×15 mm.
Railed yupa (sacrificial post) with side decorations and a Brahmi legend below reading khadasa
Reference: Pieper collection “Thanks to Shailendra Bhandare for the correct reading. According to Bhandare the legend refers to the worship of Skanda; similar objects pertaining to the Skanda cult have been reported from regions of Malwa, Vidarbha and the Deccan.”
Yupa, caṣāla is signified. M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f.,meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(CDIAL 10317)  rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho) med 'copper' (Slavic languages) mdu 'soft iron' (Samskrtam)

khANDa 'divisions' rebus:kaNDa 'implements'

Ujjain, anonymous AE 1/2 karshapana, multi-symbol type
Weight: 4.22 gm., Diameter: 18 mm.
Centrally placed Ujjain symbol; svastika and Indradhvaja on right and
    railed tree on left; fish-tank above the Ujjain symbol and parts of
    chakra on top right; river at the bottom.
Double-orbed Ujjain symbol
Reference: Pieper 379 (plate specimen)
 [Pl. 39, Indra dhvaja and Tree symbol (often on a platform) on punch-marked coins; a symbol recurring on many Indus script tablets and seals.] Source for the tables of symbols on punchmarked coins: Savita Sharma, 1990, Early Indian Symbols, Numismatic Evidence, Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan.] 

Shapes of bowl variants compare with the bottom bowl (portable furnace) of sã̄gāḍ, 'standard device' as variants of Indra-dhavaja on ancient coins, Karur seal and Ujjain glass sealings (After Figurres 39.6 to 39.9 in  Mahadevan, The sacred filter standard facing the unicorn,in:Asko Parpola, ed., 1993, South Asian Archaeology, Vol. 2, Helsinki, pp. 435-445
Coin. Vidarbha region. Bos indicus, zebu,  in front of Yūpa skambhaपोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore: Fe3O4'  skambha 'pillar' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) Thus, iron and steel mint.
Ujjain, AE 1/6 karshapana, bull type

Weight: 1.37 gm., Diameter: 11x10 mm.

Obv.: Bull to right with Indradhvaja above; railed yupa (sacrifical post)
          on right.
Rev.: Double-orbed Ujjain symbol.

I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus:kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'

Hieroglyph:  धातु [p= 513,3] m. layer , stratum Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. constituent part , ingredient (esp. [ and in RV. only] ifc. , where often = " fold " e.g. त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold &c cf.त्रिविष्टि- सप्त- , सु-RV. TS. S3Br. &c (Monier-Williams) dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.).; S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773)

Rebus: M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; (CDIAL 6773) धातु  primary element of the earth i.e. metal , mineral, ore (esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh. &c element of words i.e. grammatical or verbal root or stem Nir. Pra1t. MBh. &c (with the southern Buddhists धातु means either the 6 elements [see above] Dharmas. xxv ; or the 18 elementary spheres [धातु-लोक] ib. lviii ; or the ashes of the body , relics L. [cf. -गर्भ]) (Monier-Williams. Samskritam) Harappa (Indus) script hieroglyphs signify dhAtu 'iron ore', Dharwar, Ib names of places in India in the iron ore belt.

Image result for yupa ancient coins
Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE
Weight: 7.46 gm, Diameter: 21 mm.
Sacrificial horse standing left, yupa (sacrificial post) before, 
     circular Brāhmī legend around and si (for siddham) below horse /
Queen standing left, holding towel in left hand, flywhisk in right over her shoulder
     needle before, Brāhmī legend at right: Ashvamedhaparākrama
Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE
Weight: 7.37 gm, Diameter: 23 mm.
Sacrificial horse standing left, yupa (sacrificial post) before, 
     circular Brāhmī legend around and si (for siddham) below horse /
Queen standing left, holding towel in left hand, flywhisk in right over her shoulder
     needle before, Brāhmī legend at right: Hayamedhaparākrama 

Like the flag that will be raised in honour of Indra during the month of ashvin on a full-moon day, but thrown onto earth along with its flagstaff after the festival, Vali with depleted energy and dissipated vitality slowly fell onto ground, and with tears blocking throat he moaned piteously. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa 4-16-37]
This indra dhvaja ustava , festival of Indra's flagstaff will be undertaken after the sixth lunar month of year, usually after summer in order to appease Indra to cause rains. On full-moon day in Ashvayuja month [October-November] this will be performed and after the ritual the flag / flagstaff will be thrown to ground.
ध्वज [p= 522,1]  ध्वज्) a banner , flag , standard (ifc. f(आ).RV. &c. Brhat Samhitā calls the dvhaja  Indra-dhvaja sampad,'glory of Indra's flag'(BS 43). MBh 1.57 calls the dhvaja as yaṣṭi (iṣṭapradānam), refers to Indra’s festival as maha (v.23),utsava śakrasya (v.26).

Nāṭyaśāstra 1.54 to 1.59:

The Banner festival of Indra and the first production of a play
1.53-55. On these words, Brahman said, ‘A vey suitble time for the production of a play has come: the Banner Festival of Indra has just begun; make use of the Nāṭyaveda now on this occasion.”

1.55-58. I then went to that festival in honour of Indra’s victory which took place after the Dānavas and the Asuras (enemies of the gods) were killed. In this festival where jubilant gods assembled in great numbers I performed for their satisfaction the holy Benediction (nāndi) consisting blessings with words in their eightfold aspects (aṣṭānga, lit. of eight limbs). Afterwards I devised an initiation of the situation in which the Daityas were defeated by gods (and), which represented (sometimes) an altercation and tumult and (sometimes) mutual cutting off and piercing (of limbs or bodies).
1.58-61. Then Brahman as well as other gods were pleased with the performance and gave us all sorts of gifts as a token of joy that filled their mind. First of all the pleased Indra (Sakra) gave his auspicious banner, then Brahman a blacksmith's forge (Kuṭilaka) and Varuṇa a golden pitcher (bhṛngāra), Surya (the sun-god) gave an umbrella, Siva success (siddhi), and Vāyu (the wind-god) a fan. Viṣṇu gave us a lion-seat (simhāsana), Kuvera a crown, and the goddess Sarasvati gave visibility as well as audibility. (NOTE: Does Indra-dhvaja signify  कुटिलिका f. a tool used by a blacksmith Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18 Ka1s3.? Or is it a signifier of a forge?) कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl 'curve' kuṭila 'bent' (CDIAL 3230) Rebus:kuṭila  'bronze' (8 parts copper, 2 parts tin).

This Indra makha festival occurred on the twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Bhādra. Dhvaja-maha is a Prakrt form of makha ‘yajña’. मख 1 [p= 772,1] m. a feast , festival , any occasion of joy or festivity RV. S3a1n3khGr2.m. a sacrifice , sacrificial oblation S3Br. &c ( Naigh. iii , 17); m. (prob.) N. of a mythical being (esp. in मखस्य शिरः , " मख's head ") RV. VS. S3Br. (cf. also comp.)l mfn. (prob. connected with √1. मह् or √ मंह्) jocund , cheerful , sprightly , vigorous , active , restless (said of the मरुत्s and other gods) RV. Br.

(The Nāṭyaśāstra, a treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics ascribed to Bharata Muni, tr. By Manomohan Ghosh, 1950, Royal Asiatic Society, Kolkata.)

Gaṇeśais tri त्रि  -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa; -तुम् 1 the triple world. -2 the aggregate of the 3 minerals or humours. त्रि--धातु [p= 458,3]  mfn. consisting of 3 parts , triple , threefold (used like Lat. triplex to denote excessive) RV. S3Br. v , 5 , 5 , 6; m. (scil. पुरोड्/आशN. of an oblation TS. ii , 3 , 6. 1 ( -त्व्/अ n. abstr.); n. the aggregate of the 3 minerals or of the 3 humours W.; m. गणे* L.

Rudra-Śiva is  शर्व name of of one of the 11 रुद्रVP. (विष्णु-पुराण); शर्व [p= 1057,1] m. (fr. श्/उरुN. of a divine hunter who kills with arrows (mentioned together with भव and other names of रुद्र-शिव).

An ādi-bhautika metaphor relates to the Yupa, the flagstaff. 

Yupa is a divine metaphor.

 (Octagoal flagstaff) is yajñasya ketu (RV3.8.8), a proclamation of the performance of a Soma Samsthā yajña.

In a remarkable Sukta (RV 3.8) Viśvāmitra offers prayers to the Yupa divinity.

3.008.01 Vanaspati, the devout anoint you with sacred butter at the sacrifice; and whether you stand erect, or your abode be on the lap of this your mother (earth), grant us riches. [Vanaspati = lit. forest lord; here, the reference is to the post of wood to which the victim is tied; the hymn is cited in Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.2; cf. Nirukta 8.18]. 
3.008.02 Standing on the east of the kindled (fire), dispensing food (as the source) of undecaying (health) and excellent progeny, keeping off our enemy at a distance, stand up for great auspiciousness. 
3.008.03 Be exalted, Vanaspati upon this sacred spot of earth, being measured with careful measurement, and bestow food upon the offerer of the sacrifice. 
3.008.04 Well clad and hung with wreaths comes the youthful (pillar); most excellent it is as soon as generated; steadfast and wise venerators of the gods, meditating piously in thei rminds, raise it up. 
3.008.05 Born (in the forest), and beautified in the sacrifice celebrated by men, it is (again) engendered for the sanctification of the days (of sacred rites); steadfast, active and intelligent (priests) consecrate it with intelligence, and the devout worshipper recites its praise. 
3.008.06 May those (posts) which devout men have cut down, or which, Vanaspati, the axe has trimmed, may they standing resplendent with all their parts (entire) bestow upon us wealth with progeny. 
3.008.07 May those posts which have been cut down upon the earth, and which have been fabricated by the priests, those which are the accomplishers of the sacrifice, convey our acceptable (offering) to the gods. 
3.008.08 May the leaders of the rite, the divine A_dityas, Rudras, Vasus, Heaven and Earth, the Earth, the firmament, well pleased, protect our sacrifice; let them raise aloft the standard of the ceremony. 
3.008.09 Arrayed in bright (garments), entire (in their parts), these pillars ranging in rows like swans, have come to us erected by pious sages on the east( of the fire); they proceed resplendent on the path of the gods. 
3.008.10 Entire in all parts and girded with rings, they appear upon the earth like the horns of horned cattle; hearing (their praises) by the priests; may they protect us in battles. 
3.008.11 Vanaspati, mount up with a hundred branches, that we may mount with a thousand, you whom the sharpened hatchet has brought for great auspiciousness.

यूप [p= 856,1] signifies yajña; is sign , mark , ensign , flag , banner RV. AV. MBh. &c; m. (prob. fr. √ युप् ; but according to Un2. iii , 27 , fr. √2. यु) a post , beam , pillar , (esp.) a smooth post or stake to which the sacrificial victim is fastened , any sacrificial post or stake (usually made of bamboos or खदिर wood ; in R. i , 13 , 24 ; 25, where the horse sacrifice is described , 21 of these posts are set up , 6 made of बिल्व , 6 of खदिर , 6 of पलाश , one of उडुम्बर , one of श्लेष्मातक , and one of देव-दारुRV. &c; Yupa is अष्टा* श्रि [p= 117,1] mfn. having eight corners S3Br. yupa is associated with चषाल [p= 391,2] mn. (g. अर्धर्चा*दि) a wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post RV. i , 162 , 6 TS. vi Ka1t2h. xxvi , 4 (चशालS3Br. &c. The hieroglyphs are: चषालm. a hive L.; n. the snout of a hog MaitrS. i , 6 , 3.

चषालः, पुं, (चष्यते वध्यतेऽस्मिन् । चष + “सानसि-वर्णसीति ।” उणां । ४ । १०७ । इति आलप्रत्ययेन निपातनात् साधुः ।) यूपकटकः । इत्य-मरः । २ । ७ । १८ ॥ यज्ञसमाप्तिसूचकं पशु-बन्धनाद्यर्थं यज्ञभूमौ यत् काष्ठमारोप्यते स यूपःतस्य शिरसि वलयाकृतिर्डमरुकाकृतिर्व्वा यःकाष्ठविकारः सः । यूपमूलेविहितलोहवलयश्च ।इति केचित् । इति भरतः ॥ मधुस्थानम् । इतिसंक्षिप्तसारे उणादिवृत्तिः ॥ https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/शब्दकल्पद्रुमः
चषालः [caṣālḥ], 1 A wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post; चषालं ये अश्वयूपाय तक्षति Rv.1.162.6; चषालयूपत- च्छन्नो हिरण्यरशनं विभुः Bhāg.4.19.19. An iron ring at the base of the post. A hive. (Apte)

चषाल पु० न० चष--आलच् अर्द्धर्च्चादि । यूपकटके यज्ञिय-पशुबन्धनार्थे यूपमध्येदेये बलयाकारे काष्ठमयेलौहमये वा पदार्थे अमरः । तल्लक्षणादिकमुक्तं का० श्रौ०६ । १ । २८ । सूत्रादौ“अग्राच्चषालं पृथमात्रमष्टाश्रि मध्यसंगृहीतम्” २८ सू०“यूप परिवासनानन्तरं यदवशिष्टं पृथक्कृतमग्रम् ततश्चषा-लं कर्त्तव्यम् प्रसारिताङ्गुलिः पाणिरामणिवन्धनान् पृथक्इत्युच्यते चषालमिति संज्ञा सं व्यवहारार्था “आ चषाले-क्षणात्” इत्यादौ । अष्टाश्रि अष्टकोणम् तदपि तक्षणेनाष्ट-कोणं कुर्य्यात् तक्षैव । उलूखलवन्मध्ये संकुचितम्” कर्कः ।“ऊर्द्धमग्रे प्रतिमुञ्चति” २९ सू० “तच्चषालं यूपस्याग्रे ऊर्द्ध्वंप्रतिमुञ्चति अतएवोर्द्धप्रतिमोकविधानाच्चषालस्य तथाबेधः कार्यः । प्रतिमुञ्चतीति वचनाच्च चूड़ाग्रो यूपःचषालं च ससुषिरमिति गम्यत इति हरिस्वामिनःतथा चाहापस्तम्बः “मूलतोऽतष्टमुपरम् अष्टाश्रिरनुपूर्वोऽग्रतोऽणीयान् प्रज्ञाताष्टाश्रिरिति” कर्क०“द्व्यङ्गुलं त्र्यङ्गुलं वां तर्द्मातिक्रान्तं यूपस्य” ३० सू०“यूपस्य यूपाग्रस्य द्व्यङ्गुलं त्र्यङ्गुलं वा चषालं तर्द्माति-क्रान्तं चषालच्छिद्राग्रवेधादतिक्रान्तं भवति अतिक्रम्योर्द्ध्वंनिःसृतं भवति तथा चषालस्योर्द्धं प्रवयणं कर्त्तव्यम्यथा चषालो यूपाग्रादधो द्व्यङ्गुले त्र्यङ्गुले वा तिष्ठ-तीत्यर्थः” कर्कः “भूश्चषालतुलिताङ्गुलीयकम्” माघः https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/वाचस्पत्यम्
In one passage of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa[२] it is directed to be made of wheaten dough (gaudhūma): चषाल न. मूंठ, ऋ.वे. 3.8.1० (चषालवन्तः स्वरवः पृथिव्याम्); मा.श्रौ.सू., यज्ञीय यूप पर एक काष्ठीय वलय लगा देना चाहिए, कुछ के मतानुसार, ऊपर से दो या तीन आंगुल की दूरी पर। उसे यज्ञीय यूप के शिखर को ‘चषाल’ के ऊपर ही रहने देना चाहिए (ताकि यह) लम्बाई में उपरी अंगुलास्थि के बराबर (होवे)। ‘चषाल’ का निर्माण चरव्य चषाल 229 भी उसी वृक्ष से किया जाता है, जिससे यज्ञिय यूप (स्तम्भ) तैयार किया जाता है। यदि अध्यर्वु यह चाहता हो कि यजमान के धन का उपयोग दूसरा कोई करे, तो उसे ‘स्वरु’ एवं ‘चषाल’ का निर्माण ‘यूप’ की लकड़ी से भिन्न काष्ठ से करना चाहिए। उसे ‘चषाल’ पर ‘ऐन्द्रमसि’ से सभी तरफ लेप करना चाहिए, ओर इसे यूप पर ‘सुपिप्पलाभ्यस्त्वा’ इस मन्त्र से स्थिर कर दे (लगा दे), श्रौ.को. (अं) I.796। उसे यूप के लेपन के लिए चषाल को हटा लेना चाहि और इसका शोधन करना चाहिए, श्रौ.को. (अं.) 1.799. इसे लगाने के पहले वह इसे यूप के उत्तर की ओर रखे, (श्रौ.को (अं.) I.8०1), (का.श्रौ.सू.) (6.2.2-3.15)। यदि यज्ञ की पूर्णता के पहले कोई पक्षी चषाल पर बैठ जाय, तो ‘सर्वप्रायश्चित्त’- संज्ञक कृत्य का अनुष्ठान करना पड़ता है, श्रौ.को. (अं.) I.86०. यदि ‘उपर’ के ऊपर दो शाखाओं वाला ‘यूप’ अनुमत हो, तो उन्हें दो तनों पर दो चषाल लगाने चाहिए, श्रौ.को. (अं) I.885. चषालवलय एक बीता (दश अंगुल) ऊँचा, बीच में संकीर्ण (उलूखलवत्) एवं आकृत में अष्टकोणीय (आठ कोणों वाला, अष्टाश्रि) होता है, श्रौ.को. (अं.) I.ii 781 (भा.श्रौ.सू. 7.1.1-4.4)। चि.भा.से. के मतानुसार यह यूप का एक काष्ठीय शिरःखण्ड है। यह आठ कोनों वाला, बीच में संकुचित, किसी के हाथ की कलाई से अंगुलियों के अग्रभाग के बराबर एवं खोखली निर्मित होती है। इसे ‘यूप’ के शिखर पर पगड़ी के समान इस तरह लगाया जाता है कि यूप का दो अथवा तीन अंगुल (भाग) चषाल के ऊपर उभरा रहे, का.श्रौ.सू.० (पशुबन्ध)। यदि यजमान ज्ञानेन्द्रियों की शक्ति की कामना वाला है, तो ‘यूपों’ को खड़ा करना चाहिए ताकि ‘चषाल’ एक समान रहें (तै.सं. कहने का अभिप्राय है कि ‘यूपों’ के भागों की परिधि, जिसपर चषालों को लगाना है, समान रहें, बौ.श्रौ.सू. 17.11-13. ‘पात्नीवत यूप’ पर कोई भी चषाल नहीं लगाया जाता है, श्रौ.को. (अं) II.85०.
  1. ऊपर जायें Rv. i. 162, 6;
    Taittirīya Saṃhitā, vi. 3, 4, 2, 7;
    Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, xxvi. 4, etc.;
    Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, i. 11, 8, etc.
  2. ऊपर जायें v. 2, 1, 6.

    Cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 26, 168, n. 1;
    41, 31, n. 1.
Cylinder seal impression rendering Ea/Enki in a more "CUBULAR" apsu/abzu "sea House." Two Lahmu, naked except for a thong belt they wear, guard the portals. The two faced god is Izimud, Ea's vizier. Ea holds in his had an irrigation pot with two streams of water (rivers ?). He was the god who sent up freshwater for rivers from springs in the earth from his abzu house (for the below photo cf. p. 13. Diane Wolkenstein & Samuel Noah Kramer. Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Her Stories and Hymns From Sumer. New York. Harper & Row. 1983. ISBN 0-06-090854-8 paperback).
An impression from an ancient cylinder seal of Ea/Enki standing within his rectangular abzu shrine or sea-house within the abyss (the underground freshwater ocean, or abzu/apsu). The schematized portals or door hinges to the shrine are guarded by two Lahmu "hairy [ones]" naked except for a thong belt they wear. Note the wavy lines about the shrine symbolizing the watery abyss (for the photo cf. p. 98. "Ea." Piotr Bienkowski & Alan Millard. Dictionary of the Ancient Near EastPhiladelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press. 2000. ISBN 0-8122-3557-6)

kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements' PLUS Indhradhvaja or Yūpa: skambha, 'flaming pillar' (Atharvaveda), rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

Gaṇeśa, saptamātṝkāh, सप्तमातृका:, 'seven mothers', Lingodbhava, Jyotirlinga, aniconic skambha, fiery pillar of light, rebus kammaṭa 'mint'

1. Gaṇeśa is called tri-dhātu
2. Rudra is called वज्र--बाहु vajrabāhu
3. vajra is an adamantine metallic glue
4. áṅgāra m. n. ʻ glowing charcoal ʼ RV., °aka -- lex. 2. *iṅgāra -- , iṅgāla -- m. Vāsav. com.
1. Pa. aṅgāra -- m. ʻ charcoal ʼ, Pk. aṁgāra -- , °aya -- , aṁgāla -- , °aya -- m., Gy. eur. angár ʻ charcoal ʼ, wel. vaṅār m. (v -- from m. article), germ. yangar (y -- from yag, s.v.; agní -- 1); Ash. aṅāˊ ʻ fire ʼ, Kt. aṅǻ, Gmb. aṅāˊ, Pr. anéye, Dm. aṅgar (a < ā NTS xii 130), Tir. Chilis Gau. K. nār (n <  -- , not ← Psht. nār ← Ar. AO xii 184), Paš. aṅgāˊr, Shum. ã̄r (← Paš. NOGaw 59), Gaw. Kal. Kho. aṅgāˊr, Bshk. äṅgāˊr, Tor. aṅā, Mai. agār, Phal. aṅgṓr, Sh. agāˊrha° m.; S. aṅaru m. ʻ charcoal ʼ (a < ā as in Dm.), L. aṅgār m., P. aṅgyār°rā m., EP. ãgeār (y or e from MIA. aggi < agní -- 1?), WPah. bhid. aṅgāˊrõ n., pl. -- , Ku. aṅār (ḍaṅār id. X ḍājṇo < dahyátē), N. aṅār, A. āṅgāreṅgār, B. āṅgārāṅrā, Or. aṅgāra; Bi. ãgarwāh ʻ man who cuts sugar -- cane into lengths for the mill ʼ (= pakwāh); OMth. aṁgāra, Mth. ãgor, H. ãgār°rā m., G. ãgār°rɔ m., M. ãgār m., Si. an̆gura. -- Wg. ãdotdot;řã̄īˊ ʻ fire ʼ (as opp. to aṅarīˊk ʻ charcoal ʼ, see aṅgāryāˊ -- ) poss. < agní -- 1, Morgenstierne NTS xvii 226. 2. Pa. iṅghāḷa -- ʻ glowing embers (?) ʼ, Pk. iṁgāra -- , iṁgāla°aya -- ; K. yĕngur m. ʻ charcoal ʼ, yĕnguru m. ʻ charcoal -- burner ʼ; M. ĩgaḷĩgḷā m., Ko. ĩgḷo. -- Deriv. M. ĩgḷā m. ʻ a kind of large ant ʼ, ĩgḷī f. ʻ a large black deadly scorpion ʼ. aṅgāraka -- , aṅgāri -- , aṅgāryāˊ -- ; aṅgāradhānī -- , *aṅgāravarta -- , *aṅgārasthāna -- , *aṅgr̥ṣṭha -- . Addenda: áṅgāra -- : Md. an̆guru ʻ charcoal ʼ.; aṅgāraka ʻ *red like embers ʼ, m. ʻ charcoal; name of various plants ʼ (aṅgārikā -- f. ʻ stalk of sugar -- cane, flower of Butea frondosa ʼ). 2. m. ʻ the planet Mars ʼ. [áṅgāra -- ]1. Pa. aṅgāraka -- ʻ red like charcoal ʼ; S. aṅārī f. ʻ smut in wheat ʼ; WPah. bhal. aṅāˊri f. ʻ a plant with red flowers ʼ.
2. Pa. aṅgāraka -- m. ʻ Mars ʼ, Pk. aṁgāraya -- m.; S. aṅāro m. ʻ Tuesday ʼ; aṅgāri f., aṅgāritā -- f. ʻ portable brazier ʼ lex. [áṅgāra -- ]
H. ãgārī f.Addenda: aṅgāri -- : †*aṅgāriṣṭha -- .*aṅgāriṣṭha -- ʻ portable brazier ʼ. [aṅgāri -- , stha -- : cf. agniṣṭhá -- ]
WPah.kṭg. garṭhɔ m. ʻ charcoal ʼ; J. gārṭhā m. ʻ a small burning coal ʼ.aṅgāryāˊ -- , *aṅgāriyā -- , f. ʻ heap of embers ʼ. [Cf. aṅgā- rīya -- ʻ fit for making charcoal ʼ, aṅgārikā -- f., angāritā -- f. ʻ portable fireplace ʼ lex.: áṅgāra -- ] g. aṅarīˊkaṅgríč ʻ charcoal ʼ; Paš. aṅgerík ʻ black charcoal ʼ, Shum. ãdotdot;gerík; Phal. aṅgerīˊ ʻ charcoal ʼ, aṅgerīˊṣi f. ʻ black charcoal ʼ; Ku. aṅāri ʻ sparks ʼ; G. ãgārī f. ʻ small hearth with embers in it ʼ..(CDIAL 125, 126, 130, 131) aṅgārīya अङ्गारीय a. [अङ्गारेभ्यः एतानि; अङ्गार-छ] To be used for preparing coal; ˚याणि काष्ठानि P.V.1.12. Sk.;  āṅgāra आङ्गार [अङ्गाराणां समूहः अण्] A multitude of fire- brands, charcoal.; अङ्गारः aṅgārḥ रम् ram अङ्गारः रम् [अङ्ग्-आरन् Uṇ.3.134.] 1 Charcoal (whether heated or not); घृतकुम्भसमा नारी तप्ताङ्गारसमः पुमान्; उष्णो दहति चाङ्गारः शीतः कृष्णायते करम् H.1.8; नालास्त्रार्थाग्निचूर्णे तु गन्धाङ्गारौ तु पूर्ववत् Śukra.4.135; अङ्गारकः aṅgārakḥ कम् kam अङ्गारकः कम् [अङ्गार स्वार्थे कन्]  Charcoal; śiva शिव -धर्मजः the planet Mars; cf. पुरा दक्षविनाशाय कुपितस्य त्रिशूलिनः । अपतद् भीमवक्त्रस्य स्वेदबिन्दु- र्ललाटजः ॥ शान्तिप्रदानात् सर्वेषां ग्रहाणां प्रथमो भव । अङ्गारक इति ख्यातिं गमिष्यसि धरात्मज ॥ Matsya P.  aṅgārikā अङ्गारिका [अङ्गारं विद्यते अस्याः मत्वर्थे ठन् कप् च] 1 A portable fire-pan;  aṅgāriḥ अङ्गारिः f. [अङ्गार मत्वर्थे ठन् पृषोद˚ कलोपः] A portable fire-pan, brazier. अङ्गिरः aṅgirḥ अङ्गिरस् aṅgiras अङ्गिरः अङ्गिरस् m. [अङ्गति-अङ्ग् गतौ असि इरुट्; Uṇ 4. 235; according to Ait. Br. अङ्गिरस् is from अङ्गार; ये अङ्गारा आसंस्ते$ङ्गिरसो$भवन्; so Nir.; अङ्गारेषु यो बभूव सो$ङ्गिराः] N. of a celebrated sage to whom many hymns of the Rigveda (ix) are ascribed. Etymologically Aṅgira is connected with the word Agni and is often regarded as its synonym (शिवो भव प्रजाभ्यो मानुषीभ्यस्त्व- मङ्गिरः; अङ्गिरोभिः ऋषिभिः संपादितत्वात् अङ्गसौष्ठवाद्वा अङ्गिरा अग्निरूपः) According to Bhārata he was son of Agni. When Agni began to practise penance, Aṅgiras him- self became Agni and surpassed him in power and lustre, seeing which Agni came to the sage and said:- निक्षिपाम्यहमग्नित्वं त्वमग्निः प्रथमो भव । भविष्यामि द्वितीयो$हं प्राजा- पत्यक एव च ॥ Aṅgiras said :- कुरु पुण्यं प्रजासर्गं भवाग्निस्तिमि- रापहः । मां च देव कुरुष्वाग्ने प्रथमं पुत्रमञ्जसा ॥ तत्श्रुत्वाङ्गिरसो वाक्यं जातवेदास्तथा$करोत्. He was one of the 1 mind-born sons of Brahmā. His wife was Śraddhā, daughter of Kardama and bore him three sons, Bṛhaspati, Uta- thya and Saṁvarta, and 4 daughters Kuhū, Sinīvālī, Rākā and Anumati. The Matsya Purāṇa says that Aṅgiras was one of the three sages produced from the sacrifice of Varuṇa and that he was adopted by Agni as his son and acted for some time as his regent. Another account, however, makes him father of Agni. He was one of the seven great sages and also one of the 1 Prajāpatis or progenitors of mankind. In latter times Aṅgiras was one of the inspired lawgivers, and also a writer on Astronomy. As an astronomical personification he is Bṛhaspati, regent of Jupiter or Jupiter itself. शिष्यैरुपेता आजग्मु: कश्यपाङ्गिरसादयः (Bhāg. 1.9.8.) He is also regarded as the priest of the gods and the lord of sacrifices. Besides Śraddhā his wives were Smṛti, two daughters of Maitreya, some daughters of Dakṣa, Svadhā and Satī. He is also regarded as teacher of Brahmavidyā. The Vedic hymns are also said to be his daughters. According to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, Aṅgiras begot sons possessing Brahmanical glory on the wife of Rāthītara, a Kṣatriya who was childless and these persons were afterwards called descendants of Aṅgiras. The prin- cipal authors of vedic hymns in the family of Aṅgi- ras were 33. His family has three distinct branches केवलाङ्गिरस, गौतमाङ्गिरस and भारद्वाजाङ्गिरस each branch having a number of subdivisions. - (pl.) 1 Descendants of Aṅgiras, [Aṅgiras being father of Agni they are considered as descendants of Agni himself who is called the first of the Aṅgirasas. Like Aṅgiras they occur in hymns addressed to luminous objects, and at a later period they became for the most part personi- fications of light, of luminous bodies, of divisions of time, celestial phenomena and fires adapted to pecu- liar occasions, as the full moon and change of the moon, or to particular rites, as the अश्वमेध, राजसूय &c.] -2 Hymns of the Atharvaveda. -3 Priests, who, by using magical formulas of the Atharvaveda, pro- tect the sacrifice against the effects of inauspicious accidents. aṅgirasvat अङ्गिरस्वत् a. [अङ्गिराः अग्निः सहायत्वेन विद्यते$स्य; मतुप् मस्य वः] Accompanied by Aṅgiras, epithet of wind; aṅgirasāmayanam अङ्गिरसामयनम् [अलुक् स.] A Sattra sacrifice.

रुद्र a[p= 883,1] mfn. (prob.) crying , howling , roaring , dreadful , terrific , terrible , horrible (applied to the अश्विन्s , अग्नि , इन्द्र , मित्र , वरुण , and the स्प्/अशःRV. AV. (accord. to others " red , shining , glittering " , fr. a √ रुद् or रुध् connected with रुधिर ; others " strong , having or bestowing strength or power " , fr. a √ रुद् = वृद् , वृध् ; native authorities give also the following meanings , " driving away evil " ; " running about and roaring " , fr. रु द्र =  2. द्रु ; " praiseworthy , to be praised " ; " a praiser , worshipper " = स्तोतृ Naigh. iii , 16); m. " Roarer or Howler " , N. of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the रुद्रs and मरुत्s (in the वेद he is closely connected with इन्द्र and still more with अग्नि , the god of fire , which , as a destroying agent , rages and crackles like the roaring storm , and also with काल or Time the all-consumer , with whom he is afterwards identified ; though generally represented as a destroying deity , whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle , he has also the epithet शिव , " benevolent " or " auspicious " , and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere ; in the later mythology the word शिव , which does not occur as a name in the वेद , was employed , first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for रुद्र , who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle ; while a new class of beings , described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number , though still called रुद्रs , took the place of the original रुद्रs or मरुत्s: in VP. i , 7रुद्र is said to have sprung from ब्रह्मा's forehead , and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female , the former portion separating again into the 11 रुद्रs , hence these later रुद्रs are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of शिव , and most of their names , which are variously given in the different पुराणs , are also names of शिव ; those of the Va1yuP. are अजैकपाद् , अहिर्-बुध्न्य , हर , निरृत , ईश्वर , भुवन , अङ्गारक , अर्ध-केतु , मृत्यु , सर्प , कपालिन् ; accord. to others the रुद्रs are represented as children of कश्यपand सुरभि or of ब्रह्मा and सुरभि or of भूत and सु-रूपा ; accord. to VP. i , 8रुद्र is one of the 8 forms of शिव ; elsewhere he is reckoned among the दिक्-पालs as regent of the north-east quarter) RV. &c (cf. RTL. 75 &c )

वज्र--बाहु [p= 913,3] mfn. (व्/अज्र-) " thunderbolt-armed " , wielder of a thunderbolt (said of इन्द्र , अग्नि and रुद्रRV. (Monier-Williams). 
Image result for vajra varahamihira
The ancient word which denoted such a metallic weapon is vajra in Rigveda, specifically described as Ayasam vajram, metallic weapon or metallic thunderbolt.

I suggest that the association of the gloss vajra with lightning becomes a metaphor to further define vajrasangAta 'adamantine glue' which creates a steel metallic form with nanotubes or cementite.

The samAsa used by Varahamihira is vajrasanghAta, an adamantine glue. In archaeometallurgical terms, this is defined as a mixture consisting of eight parts of lead, two of bell-metal and one of iron dust.

Reference to thunderbolt weapon made of metal:

त्वष्टा वज्रम् अतक्षद आयसम् मयि देवासो वृजन्नपि क्रतुम् 

मामानीकम् सूर्यस्ये वादुष्टरम् माम् आर्यन्ति कृत्येन कर्त्वेनच 

Translation. Griffith: 3 For me hath Tvastar forged the iron thunderbolt: in me the Gods have centred intellectual power.

Translation: Sayana, Wilson: 10.048.03 For me Tvas.t.a_ fabricated the metal thunderbolt; in me the gods have concentrated pious acts; my lustre is insurmountable, like that of the Sun; men acknowledge me as lord in consequence of what I have done, and of what I shall do. [My lustre is the Sun: my army is hard to overcome, like the sun's lustre; ani_ka = lit., face].

2 He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvastarfashioned. (RV 1.32.2).
6 Even for him hath Tvastar forged the thunder, most deftly wrought, celestial, for the battle,(RV 1.61.6)
9 When Tvastar deft of hand had turned the thunderbolt, golden, with thousand edges, fashioned(RV 1.85.9)
10 Yea, Strong One! Tvastar turned for thee, the Mighty, the bolt with thousand spikes and hundred(RV 6.17.10)

Tvastr the maker of divine instruments makes Vajra for Indra, notes Rigveda."Tvastr made it for him from the bones of the seer Dadhica: it is hundred-jointed, thousand-pointed. ...'' Samudramanthanam narrative in Bhagavata Purana.
Indra Holding Thunderbolt VajraIndra Holding Thunderbolt Vajra – Keshava Temple, Somnathpur

Image result for vajra thunderboltVajra with octagonal bases. Detail of the stele with Buddha, Vajrapani and Padmapani, Ahichchatra, Uttar Pradesh, years 32 of Kanishka era.

Panchalas of Ahichhatra, 75-50 BC, Indramitra, 5.92g, 17mm, Indra holding 'Vajra' (Thunderbolt) http://www.coinnetwork.com/profiles/blogs/hindu-deities-of-indian-coins

"The vajra is the Indian representative of the thunderbolt, and a comparison of corresponding ideas with other Indo-European peoples leads to the conclusion that even in the Indo-European period there was some idea of a vaguely personified independent wielder of the thunderbolt. With the Germanic tribes he became the "Thunderer," the porr of Old Norse mythology, in Hellas and Rome he was associated with Zeus-Jupiter, and in India he became Indra. But a vague recollection of his original independence had left its impression on the religious mind of the Aryans, and he was never quite absorbed by Indra. Even in the Rigveda, our chief document for the period when Indra, rose to the rank of supreme god, we also find Rudra designated as vajrabahu (II, 33. 3); in the Atharvaveda Bhava and Sarva are asked to use their Vajra against evil-doers (IV.28.6), and Soma smites with the vajra (VI. 6. 2), &c.; in the Bhagavatapurana (X. 159. 20) Visnu wields the thunderbolt, and so forth." pp. 316-317 in Note on Vajrapani-IndraSten Konow, Acta Orientalia, 1930.

     The Vajra, thunderbolt, which Usana Kavya is said to have fashioned, as also Tvastri in RV 1 .32.2, was Indra's exclusive weapon and on account of his skill in wielding it, he is called in RV Vajrabhrit, bearing the bolt, Vajrivat, armed with the bolt. Vajradaksina, holding the bolt in his right hand, Vajrabahu orVajrahasta, holding the Vajra in his hand, or Vajrin, armed with the bolt, which is the commoner epithet of them all. Not much information about the shape of Vajra is available in the RV. However, it is said that it was made of iron, and that it belonged to the category of the weapons called the astras i.e. those weapons which are operated by throwing.
     In RV V.34.2 cited earlier where Uiani is said to have presented a weapon with thousand bhristis to Indra. Geldner has translated bhristis as spike. The meaning of the word, however, is doubtful. It also occurs in RV 1.133.5 in the context of the picaci who is described as pisangabhristi. Geldner thinks that the weapon is Soma.
      JB 1.97 narrates the story of the birth of Vajra: The devas and the asuras were contesting. Those devas created a sharp-edged thunderbolt (which was) as if a man. (They through) him (? tam) warded off the asuras. Having pushed them away, he returned to the devas. The devas were frightened. They attacked him, and broke him into three. Broken into three, he remained the same ...
     It seems likely that the vajra was similar to trisula. A double trisula is found on some of the Assyrian bas-reliefs [see picture below: 4.0 Thunderbolts (vajras) in Mesopotamia], where it is depicted as having the three edges on each side with the handle in between.
Before acquiring the thunderbolt, the devas and the asuras were fighting with the staves and bows (dandairdhanubhisca) and did not succeed in defeating each other. Thereupon they started pairing the masculine and feminine words with a view to ending the battle conclusively.
     AiBr. II.31 states in the ritual language the reason of the balance in the strength of the devas and the asuras: "The Asuras performed at the sacrifice all that the Devas performed. The Asuras became thus of equal power (with the Devas) and did not yield to them (in any respect). Thereupon the Devas saw (by their mental eyes) the tusnim samsa i.e. silent praise. The Asuras (not knowing it) did not perform this (ceremony) of the Devas. This "silent praise" is the silent (latent) essence (of the mantras). Whatever weapon (Vajra) the Devas raised against the Asuras, the latter got aware of them . The Devas then saw the silent praise as their weapon; they raised it, but the Asuras did not become aware of it. The Devas aimed it at the Asuras and defeated the latter who did not perceive (the weapon aimed at them). Thereupon the Devas became the masters of the Asuras...""
     This may simply be interpreted as suggesting that the asuras were alert every time they were attacked, but when taken unawares, they succumbed to the attack.
     The discussion of archaeological material shows that this original double trisula was transformed by the asuras into a weapon which could perform two kinds of functions. It could be thrown and could be held as well.''
Source: Shendge, Malati J.: The civilized Demons: The Harappans in the Rigveda. Pgs. 79-80.

वज्र[p= 913,1] a kind of hard mortar or cement (कल्कVarBr2S. (cf. -लेपmn. " the hard or mighty one " , a thunderbolt (esp. that of इन्द्र , said to have been formed out of the bones of the ऋषि दधीच or दधीचि [q.v.] , and shaped like a circular discus , or in later times regarded as having the form of two transverse bolts crossing each other thus x ; sometimes also applied to similar weapons used by various gods or superhuman beings , or to any mythical weapon destructive of spells or charms , also to मन्यु , " wrath " RV. or [with अपाम्] to a jet of water AV. &c ; also applied to a thunderbolt in general or to the lightning evolved from the centrifugal energy of the circular thunderbolt of इन्द्र when launched at a foe ; in Northern Buddhist countries it is shaped like a dumb-bell and called Dorje ; » MWB. 201 ; 322 &c RV. &c a diamond (thought to be as hard as the thunderbolt or of the same substance with it) , Shad2vBr. Mn. MBh. &c n. a kind of hard iron or steel L. mfn. adamantine , hard , impenetrable W. mfn. shaped like a kind of cross (cf. above ) , forked , zigzag ib. [cf. Zd. vazra , " a club. "](Monier-Williams)

Note: In Rigveda, vajra refers to something hard or mighty compared to a thunderbolt or a jet of water. At what stage of semantic evolution, the gloss was expanded to mean 'adamaentine, glue' is unclear. This is the stage when the artisans might have recognized the feature of cementite, as a nanotube which forms when carbon combines with iron. It is clear that in VarAhamira's time, the gloss vajra meant an adamantine glue: sanghAta. It is possible that this gloss was signified by the sangaDa 'lathe' which is a device most commonly deployed on Indus Script Corpora.

Vajradhara (Adi-Buddha) is he thunderbolt-bearer. rdo-rje-hc'an 'he who holds a thunderbolt'; ocirdara (corruption of vajradhara), or Vacir bariqci (he who holds a thunderbolt); Symbols: vajra 'thunderbolt'; ghaNTa 'bell'; MudrA: vajra-hUmkAra. Colour: dark blue; S'akti: PrajnApaaramita; Other names: Karmavajra, dharmavajra. Vajradhara, the 'indestructible', lord of all mysteries, master of all secrets, is an exoteric representation of Adi-Buddha and in this form is believed to reign over the Eastern Quarter...Certain Lamaist sects identified Vajradhara with Vajrasattva, while others looked upon Vajrasattva as an active form of Vajradhara, who was too lost in divine quietude to occupy himself directly with the affairs of sentient beings. Others again worshipped Vajradhara as a supreme deity distinct and apart from Vajrasattva...Vajradhara was thus looked upon as Adi-Buddha by the two greatest sects of the MahAyAna schoo; the dKar-hGya-pa (Red-caps) and the dGe-lugs-pa (Yellow-caps)...He has the UrNA and ushNIsha. His arms are crossed on his breast in the vajrahUmkAra mudrA holding the vajra and ghaNTA. These two symbols may, however, be supported by flowering branches on either side, the stems being held in the crossed hands, which is his special mystical gesture." (Getty, Alice, 1988, The gods of Northern Buddhism: their history and iconography, Courier Corporation;1914, Oxford, Clarendon Press, p.ix).
Vajrasatva with vajra Khmer style, NE-Thailand 13th century, Vajrayana, Tantric Buddhism.
Museum No. 1858. Gandhara Peshawar Museum.
Vajrapāṇi in the Narrative Reliefs, in: Migration, Trade and Peoples, Part 2: Gandharan Art, ed. C. Fröhlich, The British Association for South Asian Studies, (Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists in London 2005) pp. 73-83.
Bas-relief of Phnom Kulen in Cambodia, IX century.Indra holds double-vajra, seated on a column.
Śivalinga found in Vizhinjam, 1st cent. CE?
Sivalinga, Lelei, Dist.Sundergarh. A full (Square base the (brahmabhaga), octagonal in the middle (vishnubhaga), cylindrical on top (rudrabhaga signifying the projecgting flame of the fiery pillar of light). I suggest that this is a signifier of wealth, nidhi, padma nidhi: tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'. Sivapurana explains Lingodbhava in a variant narrative with Brahma (Hamsa) searching for the end of the pillar and Vishnu (Varaha) searching for bottom of the endless pillar of light, so depicted in the Mahesvara temple, Tiruvatturai. Lotus is the centerpiece on the top decorative ring. bloomed lotus is carved as yonipitha, on the base of Sivalinga  
Paramesvara. Tiruvatturai temple.  
The pillar of light/fire is the central idea of the work in kole.l 'smithy'; the manifestation is kole.l 'temple' in awe at what the earth and oceans have yielded as minerals which transmute into material resources produced by a cultural group called bharatam janam, 'metalcasters'.

Rudra, in his fiery matted hair has been depicted beautifully in the Ekamukha linga of Lord Shiva at Udayagiri in the 4th cent. CE? This artistry of showing wavy lines denotes that linga is a pillar of light, pillar of fire. Rudra was a Rigvedic asura, a form of Agni and associated with the 'roar' of wind or storm.
mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- ,mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur) mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhīmeri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. (CDIAl 10317).mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- .mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.(CDIAL 10318).

mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ]Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10319).

The pillar of light, pillar of fire is relatable to the gloss semant. 'post, pillar': meḍ(h), meḍhī f., 
meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. (Marathi) 

मृदु mṛdu '(soft) iron' मृदु mṛdu : (page 1287) A kind of iron.-कार्ष्णायसम्,-कृष्णायसम् soft-iron, lead. (Apte. Samskritam) This gloss could link with the variant lexis of Indian sprachbund with the semantics 'iron': Bj. merhd(Hunter) `iron'. Sa. mE~R~hE~'d `iron'.  ! mE~RhE~d(M). mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) 
Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.) Rebus: med. iron, iron implements (Ho.) me~rhe~t ‘iron’; me~rhe~t icena ‘the iron is rusty’; ispat me~rhe~t ‘steel’, dul me~rhe~t ‘cast iron’; me~rhe~t khan.d.a ‘iron implements’ (Santali) (Santali.lex.Bodding)  mer.ed, me~r.ed iron; enga mer.ed soft iron; sand.i mer.ed hard iron; ispa_t mer.ed steel; dul mer.ed cast iron; imer.ed rusty iron, also the iron of which weights are cast; bicamer.ediron extracted from stone ore; balimer.ed iron extracted from sand ore; mer.ed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.) pasra mer.ed, pasa_ra mer.ed = syn. of kot.e mer.ed = forged iron, in contrast to dul mer.ed, cast iron (Mundari.lex.) me~r.he~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes (Santali); mer.ed (Mun.d.ari); med. (Ho.)(Santali.lex.Bodding)  me~r.he~t idena = the iron is rusty; dal me~r.he~t = cast iron; me~r.he~t khan.d.a = iron implements (Santali) Sa. mE~R~hE~’d `iron’.  ! mE~RhE~d(M).Ma. mErhE’d `iron’.Mu. mERE’d `iron’.  ~ mE~R~E~’d `iron’.  ! mENhEd(M).Ho meD `iron’.Bj. merhd(Hunter) `iron’.KW mENhEd@(V168,M080)
Substantive: med.o  merchant’ clerk (Hem.Dec.); mehto a schoolmaster, an accountant, a clerk, a writer (G.) med.h = the helper of a merchant (Pkt.lex.) me_t.i, me_t.ari = chief, head, leader, the greatest man (Te.lex.) ?med.i (EI 9), also called meli, a kidnapper of victims for sacrifices (IEG). mehara = (EI 33) a village headman (IEG). mehto [Hem. Des. med.ho = Skt. Van.ik saha_ya, a merchant’s clerk, fr. mahita, praised, great] a schoolmaster; an accountant; a clerk; a writer (G.lex.) mel. = tallying, balancing of accounts; a cash book; mel.van. = a mixture, a composition; mixing (G.lex.) me_r..iyar = pu_vaiciyar, ve_l.a_l.ar, i.e. agriculturists, traders (Ta.lex.)   
 (Santali dictionary, Campbell, p. 420).
The ligature of a face on the linga is a Meluhha hieroglyph denoting: mũh 'face' is: mũh 'ingot' (Santali).mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali) mũh metal ingot (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali)

Jatalinga période de Tra Kieu Xè siècle Grès gris Ce linga posé sur la cuve à ablations est lié au culte de Shiva Construit par l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient en 1915, le musée fut initialement baptisé Musée Henri Parmentier (nom de l’un des premiers explorateurs des sites du Royaume du Champa). Les oeuvres sont classées par provenance et par période, ce qui permet de suivre, de salle en salle, l’évolution de l’art cham au niveau de la sculpture. La majorité des objets proviennent des sites de Tra Kieu (ancienne capitale administrative du Royaume du Champa), de My Son, de Dong Duong (centre bouddhiste) et de Thap Man.

jaṭa जट a. [जट्-अच्; जन् उणा˚ टन् अन्त्यलोपश्च] Wearing twisted locks of hair. -टा [Uṇ.5.3] 1 The hair matted and twisted together, matted or clotted hair; जटाधरणसंस्कारं द्विजातित्वमवाप्य च Mb.12.61.3. अंसव्यापि शकुन्तनीडनिचितं बिभ्रज्जटामण्डलम् Ś.7.11; जटाश्च बिभृयान्नित्यम् Ms.6.6; Māl.1.2. -2 A fibrous root; यत्र मुञ्जावटे रामो जटाहरणमादिशत् Mb.12.122.3. -3 A particular manner of reciting Vedic texts; thus the words नभः रुद्रेभ्यः repeated in this manner would stand thus :-- नमो रुद्रेभ्यो रुद्रेभ्यो नमो नमो रुद्रेभ्यः जट [p=409,1] mfn. wearing twisted locks of hair g. अर्श-आदि; जटा f. the hair twisted together (as worn by ascetics , by शिव , and persons in mourning) Pa1rGr2. ii , 6 Mn. vi , 6 MBh. (ifc. f(आ). , iii , 16137) &cf.; a fibrous root , root (in general) Bhpr. v , 111 S3a1rn3gS. i , 46 and 58; f. N. of a पाठ or arrangement of the Vedic text (still more artificial than the क्रम , each pair of words being repeated thrice and one repetition being in inverted order) Caran2.

In this semantic structure, the जटा is orthographed to signify fibrous roots of the wheat straw which constitute the annam in pyrolisis for the smelting process. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material to caburize -- to produce hard alloy metal, to transform wrought iron into steel.

Thus, the चषालः caṣāla is orthographed as the जटा as seen in the JaiyA s'ivalinga. caṣāla चषाल This is a Rigveda word which signifies the top-piece of the Yūpa. (RV 1.162)

1.162.01 Let neither Mitra nor Varun.a, Aryaman, A_yu, Indra, R.bhuks.in,nor the Maruts, censure us; when we proclaim in the sacrifice the virtus of the swift horse sprung from the gods. [a_yu = va_yu (a_yuh satataganta_ va_yuh, vaka_ralopo va_); r.bhuks.in = Indra; but,here Praja_pati, he in whom the r.bhus,or the devas, abide (ks.iyanti); sprung from the gods: devaja-tasya = born as the type of various divinities, who are identified with different parts (e.g. us.a_ va_ as'vasya medhyasya s'irah: Br.hada_ran.yaka Upanis.ad 1.1.1); legend: the horse's origin from the sun, either direct, or through the agency of the Vasus: sura_d as'vam vasavo niratas.t.a].
1.162.02 When they, (the priests), bring the prepared offering to the presence (of the horse), who has been bathed and decorated with rich (trappings), the various-coloured goat going before him, bleating, becomes an acceptable offering to Indra and Pu_s.an. [The prepared offering: ra_tim-gr.bhi_ta_m = lit. the seized wealth; the offering to be made for the horse; pu_s.an = Agni; the goat is to be tied to the front of the horse at the sacrificial post, such a goat, black-necked, kr.s.nagri_va (a_gneyah kr.s.n.agri_vah: Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 5.5.22), being always regarded as an a_gneya pas'u, or victim sacred to Agni, and to be offered to him (Ka_tya_yana Su_tra 98). A black goat is also dedicated to pu_s.an, along with soma (Yajus. xxix.58; but, he is also to be attached to the na_bhi or middle of the horse (Yajus. xxiv.1)].
1.162.03 This goat, the portion of Pu+s.an fit for all the gods, is brought first with the fleet courser, to that Tvas.t.a_ may prepare him along with the horse, as an acceptable preliminary offering for the (sacrificial) food. [The portion of Pu_s.an: he is to be offered in sacrifice to Pu_s.an or Agni; Tvas.t.a_ = sarvasyotpa_daka, the producer of all forms; tvas.t.a_ ru_pa_n.i vikaroti (Taittiri_ya Sam.hita_ 1.5.92); or, identified wiith Agni;preliminary offering purod.a_s'am = offering of cakes and butter; purasta_d-da_tavyam, that which is to be first offered].
1.162.04 When the priests at the season (of the ceremony), lead forth the horse, the offering devoted to the gods, thrice round (the sacrificial fire); then the goat, the portion of Pu_s.an, goes first, announcing the sacrificer to the gods. [The goat is to be first immolated]. 1.162.05 The invoker of the gods, the minister of the rite, the offerer of the oblation, the kindler of the fire, the bruiser of the Soma, the director of the ceremony, the saage (superintendent of the whole); do you replenish the rivers by this well-ordered, well-conducted, sacrifice. [The invoker of the gods: designations applied to eight of the sixteen priests employed at a solemn rite: the two first are: hota_ and adhvaryu; avaya_j = pratiprastha_ta_, who brings and places the offering; agnimindha = agni_dh, the kindler of the fire; gra_vagra_bha = the praiser of the stones that bruise the Soma,or he who applies the stones to that purpose; s'am.sta_ = pras'a_sta_; suvipra = Brahma_ (brahmaiko ja_te ja_te vidya_m vadatibrahma_ sarvavidyah sarva veditumarhati: Nirukta 1.8); replenish the rivers: vaks.an.a_ apr.n.adhvam, nadi_h pu_rayata, fill the rivers; the consequence of sacrifice being rain and fertility; or, it may mean, offer rivers of butter, milk, curds, and the like].

RV 1.162.06 Whether they be those who cut the (sacrificial) post, or those who bear the post, or those who fasten the rings on the top of the post, to which the horse (is bound); or those who prepare the vessels in which the food of the horse is dressed; let the exertions of them all fulfil our expectation. [The post: twenty-one posts, of different kinds of wood, each twenty-one cubits long, are to be set up, to which the different animals are to be fastened, amounting to three hundred and forty-nine, besides two hundred and sixty wild animals, making a total of six hundred and nine (Ka_tya_yana); the text seems to refer to a single post: cas.a_lam ye as'vayu_pa_ya taks.ati: cas.a_la = a wooden ring, or bracelet, on the top of the sacrificial post; or, it was perhaps a metal ring at the foot of the post]
Satapatha Brāhmana describes this as made of wheaten dough (gaudhūma).

गौधूम [p= 369,3] mf(ई g. बिल्वा*दि)n. made of wheat MaitrS. Hcat. i , 7 (f(आ).) made of wheat straw S3Br. v , 2 , 1 , 6 Ka1tyS3r. xiv , 1 , 22 and 5 , 7.

Three stone Siva Lingas found in Harappa. Plate X [c] Lingam in situ in Trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Excavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta): ‘In the adjoining Trench Ai, 5 ft. 6 in. below the surface, was found a stone lingam [Since then I have found two stone lingams of a larger size from Trenches III and IV in this mound. Both of them are smoothed all over]. It measures 11 in. high and 7 3/8 in. diameter at the base and is rough all over.’ (Vol. I, pp. 51-52)." In 1940, MS Vats discovered six Shiva Lingas at Harappa. This is an archival photo of one linga. Lingam, grey sandstone in situ, Harappa, Trench Ai, Mound F, Pl. X (c) (After Vats). "In an earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I... in this jar, six lingams were found along with some tiny pieces of shell, a unicorn seal, an oblong grey sandstone block with polished surface, five stone pestles, a stone palette, and a block of chalcedony..." (Vats, EH, p. 370)

Worship of Śiva lingam is an abiding Hindu tradition -- for millenia -- evidenced by the finds at Harappa.

Two decorated bases and a lingam, Mohenjodaro. 

Tre-foil inlay decorated base (for linga icon?); smoothed, polished pedestal of dark red stone; National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi; After Mackay 1938: I, 411; II, pl. 107:35; Parpola, 1994.

The sivalinga of Harappa are NOT octagonal. The hieroglyph of trefoil is an indicator of the metalwork related to the linga hieroglyph. tri-dhAtu 'three strands of rope' Rebus: tri-dhAtu 'three minerals'. It is possible that the trefoil hieroglyph signified production of an alloy involving three minerals (dhAtu).

Rendering of जटा  jaṭā on ekamukhalinga is a unique orthographic/ iconographic metaphor signified by sculptors to denote the nature of चषालः caṣāla and its role in the pyrolysis process to carburize metal into hard alloys during smelting"Pyrolysis has been used since ancient times for turning wood into charcoal on an industrial scale. Besides wood, the process can also use sawdust and other wood waste products...Pyrolysis is used on a massive scale to turn coal into coke for  metallurgy, especially steelmaking.       
Rigveda (IX 102.4) speaks of a group of seven Mothers who control the preparation of Soma.

9.102.01 Performing (sacred rites) the child of the great (waters) sending forth the lustre of the sacrifice (Soma) produces all acceptable (oblations) and (abides) in the two worlds. 

9.102.02 When the Soma has been taken the secret station of the grinding stones (at the sacrifice) of Trita, then with the seven supports of the sacrifice (the priests praise) the conciliating (Soma). [With the seven supports of the sacrifice: i.e., with the seven metres; or, deriving sapta from. sr.p, they effuse the Soma with the vasati_vari_ water]. 

9.102.03 (Support, Soma) with your stream Trita's three (oblations); cause the giver of riches (Indra) to come to the sacred songs. The intelligent (praiser) of this (Indra) measures out hymns. [i.e., yojana_ni which may also mean, roads or stages; in RV.1.018.05, yojana_ = a means for inducing the gods to yoke their horses, i.e., a hymn]. 

9.102.04 The seven mothers instruct the (Soma) the institutor (of the sacrifice) when born for the prosperity (of the worshippers) to that this firm Soma is cognizant of riches. [The seven mothers: i.e., the seven rivers; or, the seven metres; yat = because, tasma_d... dhana_disamr.ddhir bhavati]. 
9.102.05 The universal gods, devoid of malice, assembled together at his rite, are to be envied if being delighted they take pleasure (in the Soma). 
9.102.06 The germ which the augmenters of the rite brought forth at the sacrifice lovely to look upon intelligent, most adorable, desired by many. 
9.102.07 He of his own will approaches the great united parents of the sacrifice (heaven and earth) when (the priests) conducting the ceremony anoint him in due order with the sacred waters. 
9.102.08 Soma, by your act drive away with your brilliant organs the darkness from the sky, effusing into the sacrifice (your juice) the lustre of the rite. [di_dhitim is deried from dhr., the supporter of the rite].

Mantras to the Aṣṭamātṛkās (MS Add.1338) Cambridge Univ. Library. 955 Nepāla / 1835 CE. Folio height: 10 cm, width: 20 cm. http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-ADD-01338/6

Saptamatrika with Ganesha, at Panchalingeshvara temple in Karnataka
Nataraja–Shiva (left) with Virabhadra and the first three Matrikas. Matrikas are depicted with children – Ellora
Bronze group with (from left) Ganesha; Brahmi, Kumari, Vaishnavi – the 3 Matrikas, and Kuberataken at the British Museum; Originally from Eastern India, Dedicated in 43rd year of reign of Pala king Mahipala I (about CE 1043)
Stone sculpt NMND -20.JPG
Shiva (leftmost) with the Matrikas: (from left) BrahmaniMaheshvariKaumariVaishnaviVarahiIndraniChamunda

The Goddess Ambika (here identified with: Durga or Chandi) Leading the Eight Matrikas in Battle Against the Demon Raktabija, Folio from a Devi Mahatmya – (top row, from the left) NarasinhmiVaishnaviKaumariMaheshvariBrahmani. (bottom row, from left) VarahiAindri and Chamunda or Kali, Ambika. on the right, demons arising from Raktabija's blood

"Three panels of Saptamatrikas appear near the Shiva cave at Udayagiri, Bhopal. They are also depicted in the Shaiva caves of Elephanta and Ellora (Caves 21, 14, 16 and 22).In sixth century Rameshvara cave (Cave 21) at Ellora, "With the terrific aspect repressed entirely, the matrikas are depicted as benign and are worshipped in adulation. Sensuous, elegant, tender, beautiful adolescents, they are yet haughty and grand, quintessentially the creatrix." Karrtikkeyi (Kumari) is depicted with a child on her lap and even Varahi is depicted with a human head, rather than the usual boar one. In Ravana-ka-kai cave (Cave 14), each of the matrikas is with a child. In eighth century Kailash Temple (cave 16) – dedicated to Shiva – of Rashtrakuta period, the Matrikas appear on the southern boundary of the temple.As the influence of Tantra rose, the fertility area and upper parts of body in the Matrika sculptures were stressed." (Berkson, Carmel (1992). Ellora, Concept and Style. Abhinav Publications.)

Lingodbhavamurti. Chola dynasty, c. 900 AD; Tamil Nadu, India; Grey Granite; Room 33, South and Southeast Asia Gallery; The British Museum.
Source:http://collection.britishmuseum.org/id/object/RRI9624 Figure of Śiva as the 'image appearing from the liṅga' or liṅgodbhavamūrti. Carved in granite.
"The iconography is explained by a narrative of competition for status among the gods. Brahma and Vishnu were arguing over who was the most powerful, when a huge shaft of fire appeared between them, that appeared to have no top or bottom. They went to investigate. Vishnu in his boar incarnation dug down into the earth, seen at the base of the sculpture. Meanwhile, Brahma flew into the sky on his vehicle, the Hamsa bird, seen at the top. When neither could find either top or bottom they realized that the column of fire was more powerful than either of them. Its identity was revealed to them when Siva appeared out of the shaft, and they bowed down to Siva as the most powerful deity. Siva stands in an oval of flames wearing a tall crown and holding his distinctive attributes, the deer and axe. This image combines the aniconic form of Siva as a linga with the human image of the god with multiple arms, such as Nataraja or Dakshinamurti. Images of Lingodbhava are popular in Tamil Nadu and Shaiva temples normally have an image of this deity on the exterior of the rear or west wall of the main sanctum."

"The sculptural programme of Chola-period temples often includes this popular image of Shiva, within a niche, on the exterior wall of the shrine. Another favourite image of Shiva for an outside position is the god as 'dakshinamurti' (see BM 1961.0410.1). Although the South Indian images of this scene of Shaiva supremacy are the most well-known, a 10th-century fragment preserved in Benares shows the 'linga' of light surrounded by flames and with the figures of the astonished gods on either side of it. Unlike the Chola version, the god does not actually appear within the shaft of the 'linga'. It is tempting to connect the imagery of a fiery pillar with an earlier, but Buddhist, image which refers to the appearance of the Buddha as a pillar surrounded by flames. A representation of this scene, where such a pillar is enthroned and venerated, is recorded in the sculpture from the Buddhist site of Amaravati and is dated to the 2nd-3rd century CE...Stone statue of Shiva as Lingodbhava Shiva appears from a column of fire and declares his supremacy over Brahma and Vishnu Chola dynasty, around AD 900 From Tamil Nadu, India This stone statue is of the powerful Hindu god Shiva, in his manifestation as Lingodbhava. It comes from the exterior decoration of a south Indian temple, probably in the region of the Kaveri delta in central Tamil Nadu. The iconography is explained by a narrative of competition for status among the gods. Brahma and Vishnu were arguing over who was the most powerful, when a huge shaft of fire appeared between them, that appeared to have no top or bottom. They went to investigate. Vishnu in his boar incarnation dug down into the earth, seen at the base of the sculpture. Meanwhile, Brahma flew into the sky on his vehicle, the Hamsa bird, seen at the top. When neither could find either top or bottom they realized that the column of fire was more powerful than either of them. Its identity was revealed to them when Shiva appeared out of the shaft, and they bowed down to Shiva as the most powerful deity. Shiva stands in an oval of flames wearing a tall crown and holding his distinctive attributes, the deer and axe. This image combines the aniconic form of Shiva as a linga with the human image of the god with multiple arms, such as Nataraja or Dakshinamurti. Images of Lingodbhava are popular in Tamil Nadu and Shaiva temples normally have an image of this deity on the exterior of the rear or west wall of the main sanctum. T. R. Blurton, Hindu art (London, The British Museum Press, 1992) Width: 42 cm. Height: 138.000 cm Gift of P.T. Brooke Sewell Asia OA 1955.10-18.1 Room 33: Asia".

File:Lingodbhava Shiva.jpg
Lingodbhava Shiva Kailashanathar Kovil Kanchipuram, TN

Siva as Lingodbhava, with Vishnu worshipping him. Thanjavur Brihadisvara TempleImage result for lingodbhava
Lingodbhava. Thanjavur. Brihadisvara.
Image result for lingodbhava
"Lingodbhavamurthy is an iconic representation of Shiva, installed in the rear devakoshta (niche) of the garbagriha (sanctum) of all Shiva temples. The story of Lingodbhavar is that of the attempts of Vishnu and Bhrama to discover the origins (the beginning Aadi and the end Antha) of Shiva, as stated in three of the puranas - the Kurma Purana, the Vayu Purana and Shiva Purana.
Vishnu was engaged in his yoganidhra - the slumber of yoga - at the end of a kalpa, in the waters of the great deluge, when there appeared before him, Bhrama emerging from a great illumination. Bhrama introduced himself to Vishnu as the Creator of the Universe, to which Vishnu replied that he was the architect of the Universe. An argument ensued between both as to their superiority over one another, when there appeared before them - a huge lingam of fire - with tongues of flames blazing out of it.
Curious to trace the origins of this column of fire, Bhrama assumed the form of a swan and flew upwards, while Vishnu assumed the form of a boar, and burrowed down into the earth. Days of search in either direction proved futile, and hence the duo surrendered to this column of fire with prayers. Shiva then appeared out of this column of fiery lingam, with a thousand arms and legs, with the sun, moon and fire as his three eyes, bearing the pinaka bow, wearing the hide of an leephant, bearing the trishul, and addressed Vishnu and Bhrama in a thunderous voice, explaining that the two were born out of him, and that the three were then separated out into three different aspects of divinity.
The non-anthropomorphic form Shivalingam is a representation of this infinite cosmic column of fire, whose origins were not tracable by Bhrama or Vishnu. The Shivalingam is the center of reverence and worship in all Saivite temples. 
The manifestation of Shiva in this column of fire in front of Bhrama and Vishnu, is carved in stone, as the Lingodbhavamurthy manifestation of Shiva, and is always enshrined in the rear niche of the sanctum enshring a Shivalingam. Since most temples face east, Lingodbhavar faces West.
This legend described above  is held at the vast Arunachaleswara temple complex at Tiruvannamalai, where the sacred Annamalai hill itself, is considered to be a manifestation of this cosmic column of fire. Tiruvannamalai, is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalas, representing the primordial element fire.
There is another interesting aspect to this legend. While Bhrama was flying upwards in the guise of a swan, he saw the petals of a ketaki flower drifting down. Tired by the futility of his efforts to reach the top of the mysterious column of fire, Bhrama requested the flower to acquiese to his lie that he had seen the top of the column where the flower had previously resided. Accompanied by his accomplice, Bhrama confronted Vishnu and asserted that he had indeed discovered the origin of the cosmic column. An enraged Shiva appeared out of the fiery column and cursed Bhrama so that he would not be worshipped in temples on earth. This legend relates to the fact that there are hardly any temples dedicated to Bhrama in India. There is a shrine to Bhrama at Uttamar Koyil in Tamilnadu, and Bhrama is also represented in the devakoshtas (niches) in Shiva temples; there are thus no Bhrama temples of any significance in India." http://www.templenet.com/beliefs/lingod.htm
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Brahma flying up to find the top of the Column of Ligh
Vishnu burrowing downwards to find the bottom of the Column of Light
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 Lingodbhava in the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram, 10th century CE
Lingodbhava Murthy - Shiva Inside Linga

Lingodbhavamurti. Stone. Lingodbhavamurti. Stone. Kailasanathaswamin Temple, Conjeevaram (After TA Gopinatha Rao, 1997, Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol.2, Pt.1, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, Plate XIII, Fig.1, p. 109)

Lingodbhavamurti. Stone. Ambar-Magalam. (After TA Gopinatha Rao, 1997, Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol.2, Pt.1, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, Plate XIV, Fig.2, p. 109)

Lingodbhavamurti. Stone. Dasavatara cave, Ellora. (After TA Gopinatha Rao, 1997, Elements of Hindu iconography, Vol.2, Pt.1, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, Plate XIV, Fig.1, p. 109)
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Shiva, Lingodbhava Story (Cave 16 Ellora)
Lingodbhava, the god appears as a pillar of fire in the ocean; Brahma and Vishanu search its end and beginning.

Lingodbhava. Early Chola. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4422848

Lingodbhava, Swarga Brahma temple, Alampur, Andhra Pradesh.

Siva Lingodbhavamurti. The Lingodbhavamurti, in which Siva is represented as Candrakasekhara emerging out of fiery Skambha  Early Cola period (c. 850-1014CE. 

Rajasimhesvara (Kailasanatha) Temple: ca. 730. West wall: Lingodbhava (Shiva emerging from the linga) & Linga installed in sanctum
Emerging from Jyotirlingam, Skambha of Light. 
Lingodbhava. Tirumayam. Pudukkottai. Tamil Nadu
Lingodbhava, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka 

Siva Lingodbhavamurti, Shiva apperaing in the falming linga, Tamil Nadu, Chola period, 12th-13th century, basalt. Musee Guimet.mg07 100112181 j r

Some scholars have advanced erroneous arguments suggesting non-Aryan phallus worship to explain the traditions of linga worship. Such arguments run counter to the references to jyotirlinga temples for worship of Sivalinga as fiery pillar of light as detailed in the Atharva Veda Skambha Sukta. Archaeological evidence, iconograhic evidence from scores of temples and evidence from Indus Script cipher  to decipher the Candi Suku Sivalinga are presented to counter such fallacious arguments.

The chronology of Hindu tradition from the days of Atharva Veda is that iconic form of Mahesvara Siva emerges out of the aniconic Skambha (linga) or pillar of light and fire. What we find in the seven Sivalingas of Harappa is the aniconic form. Sivalinga appeared as a flame. Brahma, as hamsa, searches for the end in the heavens. Vishnu, as Varaha, searches for the beginning in the bowels of the earth. This Lingodbhava narrative is in many Puranas. 

Appar, Shaiva saint of the 7th century, provides a similar narrative for this Lingodbhava. Tirugnana Sambandar refers to Brahma and Vishnu who set out on a search and comprehend Siva as the nature of light. 

I submit that the most abiding form of worship is that which is displayed architecurally in Amaravati where Naga venerate the Skambha, the fiery pillar of light with the adornment of Srivatsa as the capital. The Srivatsa is a Indus Script hieroglyph of a pair of fish-tails: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'  Kur. xolā tail. Malt. qoli id. (DEDR 2135) The hooded snake which adorns as headgear is also read rebus: kula 'hooded snake' M. khoḷ f. ʻ hooded cloak ʼ(CDIAL 3942) A. kulā ʻ winnowing fan, hood of a snake ʼ(CDIAL 3350) Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'. 

The iconographic signifiers of linga are consistent with the early semantics of linga which relate to: लिङ्ग[p= 901,3] n. (once m. in Nr2isUp.;  ifc. f(आ).f(ई). only in विष्णु-लिङ्गी ; prob. fr. √ लग् ; cf. लक्ष , लक्षण) a mark , spot , sign , token , badge , emblem , characteristic (ifc. = तल्-लिङ्ग , " having anything for a mark or sign ") Up. MBh. &c. Linga as meaning 'organ of generation' occurs in Mn. Hariv. Pur. &c. The context of Atharva Veda Skambha Sukta is NOT in reference to linga but as a pillar of light, jyotis or a लक्षण of light or fire. The linga as an Indus Script hieroglyph has been explained in the context of Candi Suku iconography of four balls at the tip of a 6 ft. tall linga as a cipher for lokhāṇḍā, 'metal tools, pots and pans of copper'.
http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/09/bronze-age-lokhnda-metal-tools-pots.html Some scholars cite RV 7.21.5 and RV 10.99.3 references to s'is'nadeva as a reference to 'phallus worshippers'. This view is in error and will be explained based on Sayana's translations of the Rigvedic rica-s.

RV 7.021.05 Let not th ra_ks.asas, Indra, do us harm; let not the evil spirits do harm to our progeny, most powerful (Indra); let the sovereign lord, (Indra), exert himself (in the restraint) of disorderly beings, so that the unchaste may not disturb our rite. [Let not the ra_ks.asas: na vandana vedyabhih = vandana_ni, ra_ks.a_m.si, prajabhyah; the unchaste: s'is'nadevah, abrahmacharya ityarthah (Yaska 4.19)].

RV 10.099.03 Going to the battle, marching with easy gait, desiring the spoil, he set himself to the acquisition of all (wealth). Invincible, destroying the licentious, he won by his prowess whatever wealth (was concealed in the city) with the hundred gates. [s'is'nadeva_n is a tatpurus.a compound; hence, the meaning would perhaps be: incontinent or licentious]. 

Gopinatha Rao erroneously interprets s'is'na as non-aryans, phallus-worshippers "The worship of the Phallus which the non-Aryans of India shared with other nations who inhabited on the borders of the Mediterranean sea, has survived in India to this day. The Dhruvaberas in all Siva temples is the Linga surmounted upon the Yoni or the piNDika (pedestal). It is only in very rare instances we meet with the anthropomorphic representations of Siva set up as the principal deity in Siva temples. This non-Aryan phallic emblem seems to have been identified at a later period with Skambha of the Vedas, wherein Skambha is conceived as co-extensive with the universe and comprehends in him the various parts of the material universe, as also the abstract qualities, such as tapas, faith, truth and divisions of time. He is distinct from Prajapati, who founds the universe upon him...The gods who form part of him do homage to him."(pp.55-56 opcit.)  This interpretation is based on the meaning given to s'is'na: शिश्न [p= 1076,3] m. n. (cf. शिशन् ; said to be fr. √ श्नथ् , " to pierce ") a tail , (esp.) the male generative organRV. &c.

Gopinatha Rao has erred because, following Yaska, Sayana interprets s'is'nadeva of both these ricas as unchaste men. Durgacharya also applies the word to those who dally carnally with prostitutes, forsaking Vedic observances. The veneration of Skambha an aniconic form of Mahesvara is NOT related to Skambha as a शिश्न  but the jyotirlinga, the pillar of fire and light as the primordial explanation for the phenomena of the Universe like an axis Mundi linking earth and heaven. 

'Skambha in the beginning shed forth that gold (hiraNya, out of which HiraNyagarbha arose) in the midst of the world.' This passage in the Skambha Sukta of Atharva Veda DOES NOT 'pour forth his golden seen in begetting Prajapati' as interpreted wrongly by Gopinatha Rao but explains the term HiraNyagarbha in relation to Skambha. The word vetasa used in the Sukta refers to a reed and NOT to a membrum virile, vetasa does NOT refer to an identity of the Linga, as wrongly interpreted by Gopinatha Rao who further adds: "At a later time a sort of philosophical clothing is given to the primitive Linga: by a section of scholars the LInga and its pedestal are viewed, with some justification, as the representation of the araNis, the two pieces of wood which were rubbed together by the Vedic Indian in making fire." I submit that this view of Gopinatha Rao is speculative with no basis in philology or tradition. Skambha is a pillar of light and fire and hence, the appellation Jyotirlinga given to the 12 holy sites of Siva temples in ancient India.

Sudh in Javanese means 'thought'; Gangga sudhi (expression used on the Linga inscription of Candi-Sukuh) in Javanese literally means 'Mother-river thought'. The  imagery of linga and 4 spheres is paralleled on a 1.82m. tall linga of Candi Sukuh temple together with an inscription in Javanese and hieroglyphs of: kris sword-blade flanked by hieroglyphs of sun and crescent-moon. The lingga has the feature that all of the phalluses on the temple have; balls ligatured just below the tip of the phallus.  These are representative of a custom of the time, that Majapahit sculptors would have marble or gold balls implanted under the tip of the penis.  On top of the Mt.Lawu fortification of Candi Sukuh stood this 1.82m. tall linga.

The Lingga discovered at Candi Sukuh on the slopes of Mt. Lawu in Central Java and now in the  National Museum in Jakarta; note the keris. (from c.j. van der Vlis report of 1843).

Candi Cetho. Lingga shows a pair of balls at the top of the penis -- to be read rebus as Meluhha hieroglyph composition: lo-khaNDa, penis + 4 balls; Rebus: iron, metalware.

The four balls of the penis are also clearly shown on a 6 ft. tall linga inscribed with 1. a sword; and 2. inscription in Javanese, referring to 'inauguration of the holy ganggasudhi...'

See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/sekkizhar-periya-puranam-candi-sukuh.html Histoire ancienne des Etats hindouises along the Tin Road from Haifa to Hanoi. NaMo, Obama, announce United Indian Ocean States.

lo 'penis' Rebus: loh 'copper, metal'

Hieroglyphs: gaṇḍa 'swelling' gaṇḍa 'four' gaṇḍa 'sword'
Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)

Together, hieroglyphs: lo + gaṇḍa. Rebus: लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] 'metalwork'

(गोटा)gōṭā Spherical or spheroidal, pebble-form; 'round pebble' rebus: goa 'laterite, ferrite ore'; खोट (p. 121khōṭa f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. 
 Thus, the hypertext expression is:  goa 'spheroidal pebble' PLUS lo 'linga' rebus: loh 'copper, redd ore' PLUS goa 'laterite, ferrite ore', khōṭa 'ingot or wedge'. The linga may also signify kambha 'pillar' rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

Metaphor: Sh. K.ḍoḍ.  m. ʻ light, dawn ʼ; L. awāṇ.  ʻ light ʼ; P. lo f. ʻ light, dawn, power of seeing, consideration ʼ; WPah. bhal. lo f. ʻ light (e.g. of moon) ʼ.(CDIAL 11120). + kaṇṭa 'manliness'. Metaphorical rendering of the effulgence (sun and moon) associated with the pillar of light yielding the imagery of an representation of a fiery pillar with unfathomable beginning, unreachable end, thus of infniity of Mahadeva representing the paramaatman for the aatman in search of nihs'reyas (moksha), from Being to Becoming, the way earth and stones transmute into metal in the smelter and smithy, kole.l 'smithy, temple'. The gloss gaṇḍu 'manliness' (Kannada); 'bravery, strength' (Telugu) is a synonym of the expression on Candi Suku linga inscription: 'sign of masculinity is the essence of the world'. Thus, the gloss lokhaṇḍa which is a direct Meluhha speech form related to the hieroglyph composition on Candi Suku inscription is the sign of masculinity. The rebus renderings of khandoba or kandariya mahadeva are elucidations of the rebus gloss: kaṇḍa, 'mahadeva S'iva or mahes'vara.' The hieroglyphs deployed on the 1.82m. tall stone sculpture of linga with the inscription and hieroglyphs of sword, sun, moon and four balls deployed just below the tip of the phallus are thus explained as Meluhha speech: lokhaṇḍa. The rebus rendering of the phrase is: lo 'light' and kaṇṭa 'manliness'. These attributes constitute the effulgence of the linga as the fiery pillar, skambha venerated in Atharva Veda Skambha sukta as the cosmic effulgence as the cosmic essence.

gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ four' (Munda) गंडा[ gaṇḍā ] m An aggregate of four (cowries or pice). (Marathi) (P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  Syn. (LS4), (D).  *Sa., Mu. `id.', H. `a group of four cowries'.  %10591.  #10511.(KM)  {NUM} ``^four''.  |<-mi> `one'.  %10600.  #10520. Ju(P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  gaṇḍaka m. ʻ a coin worth four cowries ʼ lex., ʻ method of counting by fours ʼ W. [← Mu. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 234]S. g̠aṇḍho m. ʻ four in counting ʼ; P. gaṇḍā m. ʻ four cowries ʼ; B. Or. H. gaṇḍā m. ʻ a group of four, four cowries ʼ; M. gaṇḍā m. ʻ aggregate of four cowries or pice ʼ.(CDIAL 4001)

gaṇḍa -- m. ʻswelling, boil, abscessʼ(Pali)

Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi) खंडा [ khaṇḍā ] m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. खांडाईत [ khāṇḍāīta ] a Armed with the sword called खांडा. (Marathi)

लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron.लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.
लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously. 
लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.
लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 2 fig. Hardy or hard--a constitution or a frame of body, one's हाड or natal bone or parental stock. 3 Close and hard;--used of kinds of wood. 4 Ardent and unyielding--a fever. 5 लोखंडी, in the sense Hard and coarse or in the sense Strong or enduring, is freely applied as a term of distinction or designation. Examples follow.
लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] f (लोखंड) An iron boiler or other vessel. 2 A large scandent shrub, Ventilago Maderaspatana. Grah.
लोखंडी काव [ lōkhaṇḍī kāva ] f A red ochre or earth.
लोखंडी चुना [ lōkhaṇḍī cunā ] m A term for strong and enduring chunam-work.
लोखंडी छाप [ lōkhaṇḍī chāpa ] m (Iron type.) A term, according to popular apprehension, for Leaden types and for Printing; in contrad. from दगडछाप Lithography.
लोखंडी जर [ lōkhaṇḍī jara ] m (लोखंड & जर) False brocade or lace; lace &c. made of iron.
The 1.8 metre lingga of Candi Sukuh has four such balls and also has an inscription (representing the vein of the phallus) that reads: ‘Consecration of the Holy Gangga sudhi in … the sign of masculinity is the essence of the world’

लोह  [ lōha ] n S Iron, crude or wrought.

खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended.

खांडेकरी  [ khāṇḍēkarī ] m A man armed with the sword called खांडा.

खेंड [ khēṇḍa ] f A sort of sword with a rounded and weighty extremity.
खंडोबा [ khaṇḍōbā ] m A familiar appellation of the god खंडेरावसोळा गुणांचा खं0 (Marathi)

गंडा[ gaṇḍā ] m An aggregate of four (cowries or pice). (Marathi) (P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  Syn. (LS4), (D).  *Sa., Mu. `id.', H. `a group of four cowries'.  %10591.  #10511.(KM)  {NUM} ``^four''.  |<-mi> `one'.  %10600.  #10520. Ju(P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  gaṇḍaka m. ʻ a coin worth four cowries ʼ lex., ʻ method of counting by fours ʼ W. [← Mu. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 234]S. g̠aṇḍho m. ʻ four in counting ʼ; P. gaṇḍā m. ʻ four cowries ʼ; B. Or. H. gaṇḍā m. ʻ a group of four, four cowries ʼ; M. gaṇḍā m. ʻ aggregate of four cowries or pice ʼ.(CDIAL 4001)

Psht. guṇḍ ʻ round ʼ, Pers. gunda ʻ ball of leaven ʼ, gund ʻ testicle ʼ < *gr̥nda -- NTS xii 263. -- See also gaḍu -- 1, gaṇḍu -- , *giḍa -- , *gilla -- , kanda -- ]1. Pa. gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ swelling, boil, abscess ʼ; Pk. gaṁḍa<-> m.n. ʻ goitre, boil ʼ, NiDoc. gaṁḍa(CDIAL 3997)

Cognate expression: gaṅgā शुद्धि  gaṅgā is signified by the hypertext dhmakara 'makara' hieroglyph rebus: dhmakara 'blacksmith, forge-blower'. Thus, Gangga sudhi on the Candi-Sukuh inscription can be interpreted as purification process to obtain pure metal/ore from a smelter.

शुद्धि [p= 1082,2] f. cleansing , purification , purity (lit. and fig.) , holiness , freedom from defilement , purificatory rite (esp. a partic.श्राद्ध performed at the cost of a person who needs purification) TBr. &c (Monier-Wiliams) 

gaṅgā गङ्गा [गम्-गन्; Uṇ.1.12] 1 The river Ganges, the most sacred river in India; अधोधो गङ्गेयं पदमुपगता स्तोकमथवा Bh.2.1; R.2.26;13.57; (mentioned in Rv.1.75.5, along with other rivers considered sacred in India). -2 The Ganges personified as a goddess. [Gaṅgā is the eldest daughter of Himavat. It is said that a curse of Brahmā made her come down upon earth, where she became the first wife of King Śantanu. She bore him eight sons, of whom Bhīṣma, the youngest, became a well-known personage, renowned for his valour and life-long celibacy. According to another account she came down on earth being propitiated by Bhagīratha; see भगीरथ and जह्नु also; and cf. Bh.2. 1]. इमं मे गङ्गे यमुने सरस्वति Mahānār. Up.5.4. -Comp. -अम्बु, -अम्भस् n. 1 water of the Ganges. -2 pure rain-water (such as falls in the month of आश्विन). -अवतारः 1 the descent of the Ganges on the earth; भगीरथ इव दृष्टगङ्गावतारः K.32 (where गङ्गा˚ also means 'descent into the Ganges' for ablution). -2 N. of a sacred place. -अष्टकम् a collection of eight verses addressed to the Ganges; गङ्गाष्टकं पठति यः प्रयतः प्रभाते वाल्मीकिना विरचितं शुभदं मनुष्यः । -उद्भेदः the source of the Ganges. -क्षेत्रम् the river Ganges and the district two Koss on either of its banks. -चिल्ली Gangetic kite. -जः, -सुतः 1 N. of Bhīṣma. -2 of Kārtikeya; गङ्गासुतस्त्वं स्वमतेन देव स्वाहामहीकृत्तिकानां तथैव Mb.3.232.15. -जलम् the holy water (by which it is customary to administer oaths). -दत्तः an epithet of Bhīsma. -द्वारम् the place where the Ganges enters the plains (also called हरिद्वार); गङ्गाद्वारं प्रति महान्बभूव भगवानृषिः Mb.1.13.33. -धरः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 the ocean. ˚पुरम् N. of a town. -पुत्रः 1 N. of Bhīṣma. -2 of Kārtikeya. -3 a man of a mixed and vile caste whose business is to remove dead bodies. -4 a Brāhmaṇa who conducts pilgrims to the Ganges. -भृत् m. 1 N. of Śiva. -2 the ocean. -मध्यम् the bed of the Ganges. -यात्रा 1 a pilgrimage to the Ganges. -2 carrying a sick person to the river-side to die there. -लहरी N. of poem by Jagannātha Paṇḍita. -सप्तमी the 7th day in the light half of वैशाख. -सागरः the place where the Ganges enters the ocean. -सुप्तः 1 an epithet of Bhīsma. -2 of Kartikya. -ह्रदः N. of a तीर्थ.(Apte)

मूष vāhana of  gaṇeśa signifies a crucible and a bellows, fire-blower. gaṇeśa with the head of an elephant as an Indus Script hypertext metaphor, is associated with and works with iron smelter.

Dance-step of 

 gaṇeśa in Candi-Sukuh sculptural frieze. meḍ 'dance-step' rebus: meḍ 'iron,copper' (Mu.Ho.Slavic)

RV 10.53.9: Tvastar, most deft of workmen, knew each magic art, bringing most blessed bowls that hold the drink of Gods. His axe, wrought of good metal, he is sharpening now, wherewith the radiant Brahmanaspati will cut. Note: Brahman.aspati is gaṇeśa fashioned by Tvastar. gaṇeśa is fashioned with the head replaced by the head and trunk of an elephant. gaṇeśa is Indus Script hypertext expression. karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'. His vāhana is  मूष [p= 827,2] 

m. f(आ and ई). a rat , mouse Pan5cat. L. rebus: मूष a crucible Ma1rkP. Kull. L.  मूषा 'round window, airhole'. Thus, the vāhana of gaṇeśa and elephant head of evoke the crucible and air-hole of a forge-bloweer, an iron-worker, blacksmith, working with an iron smelter. On the Candi-Sukuh sculptural frrieze, Bhima is the blacksmith taking out a sword from the furnace, Arjuna is the dhamaka, dhmakara bellows-fire blower working with the bellows. The tiled hut on the Candi-Sukuh sculptural frieeze is the smelter as shown on Bhutesvar sculptural hypertext expressions with a tree PLUS smelter: kuṭhi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'. The ekamukha linga is the octagonal yupa described in R̥gveda and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇaas a ketu (topped by a caṣāla, godhuma to infuse carbon fumes) of Soma Samsthā yajña. mũh 'a face' in Indus Script Cipher signifies mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' 

RV 2.23.1

2.023.01 We invoke the Brahman.aspati, chief leaderof the (heavenly) bands; a sage of sage; abounding beyond measure in (every kind of) food; best lord of prayer; hearing our invocations, come with your protections, and sit down in the chamber of sacrifice. [Brahman.aspati = brahman.o annasya parivr.d.hasya karman.o va_ pa_layita_, the protector or cherisher of food,or of any great or solemn acts of devotion; he has other attributes in the text, as, gan.a_na_m gan.apatih, chief of the gan.as (inferior deities); jyes.t.hara_jam brahman.a_m, the best lord of mantras, or prayers: pras'asyam sva_minam mantra_n.a_m]. 
2.023.02 Br.haspati, destroyer of the asuras, through you the intelligent gods have obtained the sacrificial portion; in like manner as the adorable sun generates the (solar) rays by his radiance, so are you the generator of all prayers. [Br.haspati = Brahman.aspati; perhaps Br.haspati is of a more martial character; his protection is souhght for against enemies and evil spirits; perhaps, br.hata_m veda_na_m pa_lakah: br.hat = mantra, br.hato mantrasya, sva_min]. 
2.023.03 Having repelled revilers and (dispersed) the darkness you stand Br.haspati, on the radiant chariot of sacrifice, (which is) formidable (to foes), the humiliator of enemies, the destroyer of evil spirits, the cleaver of the clouds, the attainer of heaven. 
2.023.04 You lead men, Br.haspati, by virtuous instructions; you preserve them (from calamity); sin will never overtake him who presents (offerings) to you; you are the afflicter of him who hates (holy) prayers; you are the punisher of wrath; such is your great mightiness. [Him who hates holy prayers: brahmadvis.ah = those who hate either the bra_hman.as,or the mantras or prayers]. 
2.023.05 The man whom you, Brahman.aspati, a kind protector, defend, neither sorrow nor sin, nor adversaries nor dissemblers ever harm, for you drive away from him all injurious (things). 
2.023.06 You, Br.haspati, are our protector and the guide of (our) path; (you are) the discerner (of all things); we worship with praises for your adoration; may his own precipitate malice involve him (in destruction) who practises deceit against us. 
2.023.07 Turn aside from (the true) path, Br.haspati, the arrogant and savage man who advances to injure us, although unoffending and keep us in the right way for (the completion of) this offering to the gods. 
2.023.08 Br.haspati, defender (from calamity), we invoke you, the protector of our persons, the speaker of encouraging words and well disposed towards us; do you destroy the revilers of the gods; let not the malevolent attain supreme felicity. 
2.023.09 Through you, Brahman.aspati, (our) benefactor, may we obtain desirable wealth from men destroy those (our) unrighteous enemies, whether nigh or far off, who prevail against us. 
2.023.10 Through you, Br.haspati, (who are) the fulfiller of our desires; pure, and associated (with us), we possess excellent food; let not the wicked man who wishes to deceive us be our master; but let us, excelling in (pious) praises, attain (prosperity). 
2.023.11 You, Brahman.aspati, who have no requiter (of your bounty), who are the showerer (of benefits), the repairer to combat, the consumer of foes, the victor in battles, you are true, the discharger of debts, the humiliator of the fierce and of the exulting. 
2.023.12 Let not, Br.haspati, the murderous (weapon) of that man reach us, who, with unrighteous mind, seeks to harm us; who, fierce and arrogant, designs to kill (your) worshippers; may we baffle the wrath of the strong evil-doer]. 
2.023.13 Br.haspati is to be invoked in battles; he is to be approached with reverence; he who moves amidst combats, the distributor of repeated wealth; the lord Br.haspati has verily overturned all the assailing malignant (hosts), like chariots (overturned in battle). 
2.023.14 Consume with your brightest (weapon) the ra_ks.asas, who have held your witnessed prowess in disdain; manifest, Br.haspati, your glorified (vigour), such as it was (of old), and destroy those who speak against you. 
2.023.15 Br.haspati, born of truth, grant us that wonderful treasure, wherewith the pious man may worship exceedingly; that (wealth) which shines amongst men; which is endowed with lustre, (is) the means of (performing holy) rites, and invogirates (its possessor) with strength. [dravin.am citram = lit., various or wonderful wealth; in the Bra_hman.as it is interpreted as brahma varcas or tejas, brahmanical virtue or energy (cf. Yajus. 26.3; dravin.am = dhanam (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 4.11)]. 
2.023.16 Deliver us not to the thieves, the enemies delighting in violence, who seize ever upon the food (of others); those who cherish in their hearts the abandonment (of the gods); (they), Br.haspati, who do not know the extent of (your) power (against evil spirits). [Who do not know the extenf of your power: na parah sa_mno viduh = ye puma_msah sa_mnah sa_maya_t tvattah parah parasta_d anyadukr.s.t.am sa_ma yad raks.oghnam na ja_nanti, those men who do not know anything greater than the faculty of destroying ra_ks.asas, derived from you made up of that faculty; sa_ma vai raks.oha = sa_ma is the killer of ra_ks.asas]. 
2.023.17 Tvas.t.a_ engendered you (chief) amongst all beings, (whence) you are the reciter of many a holy hymn: Brahman.aspati acknowledges a debt to the performer of a sacred rite; he is the acquitter (of the debt), and the destoyer of the oppressor. [When you are the reciter: sa_mnah sa_mnah kavih, the reicter or another of every sa_ma, sarvasya sa_mnah ucca_rayita_ karta_si; or kavi refers to tvas.t.a_, further explained as the sage who created Brahman.aspati by the efficacy of the sa_ma: sa_mnah sa_ren.a tvam aji_janat; acknowledges a debt: r.n.acit stotr.ka_mam r.n.am iva cinoti, he takes the intention of the praiser as if it was a debt, or obligation; acquitter of the debt: r.n.aya is explained as the discharger or remover of the debt which is of the nature of sin: pa_paru_pasya r.n.asya pr.thak karta_]. 
2.023.18 When Br.haspati, descendant of An:giras, for your glory, Parvata had concealed the herd o fkine, you did set them free, and with thine associate, Indra, did send down the ocean of water which had been enveloped by darkness. 
2.023.19 Brahman.aspati, who are the regulator of this (world), understand (the purport) of (our) hymn, and grant us posterity; for all is prosperous that the gods protect; (and therefore) may we blessed with excellent descendants, glorify you at this sacrifice. [Yajus. 34.58; vadema = may we declare or glorify you; or, let us speak, let what we ask be given to us;let it be enjoyed by us: di_yata_m bhujyata_m ucca_rayema].

Griffith translation:
1. WE call thee, Lord and Leader of the heavenly hosts, the wise among the wise, the famousest of all, The King supreme of prayers, O Brahmanaspati: hear us with help; sit down in place of sacrifice. 2 Brhaspati, God immortal! verily the Gods have gained from thee, the wise, a share in holy rites. As with great light the Sun brings forth the rays of morn, so thou alone art Father of all sacred
3 When thou hast chased away revilers and the gloom, thou mountest the refulgent car of sacrifice; The awful car, Brhaspati, that quells the foe, slays demons, cleaves the stall of kine, and findsthe light.
4 Thou leadest with good guidance and preservest men; distress overtakes not him who offers gifts to thee. Him who hates prayer thou punishest, Brhaspati, quelling his wrath: herein is thy great mightiness.
5 No sorrow, no distress from any side, no foes, no creatures doubletongued- have overcome the man, Thou drivest all seductive fiends away from him whom, careful guard, thou keepest Brahmanaspati.
6 Thou art our keeper, wise, preparer of our paths: we, for thy service, sing to thee with hymns of praise. Brhaspati, whoever lays a snare for us, him may his evil fate, precipitate, destroy.
7 Him, too, who threatens us without offence of ours, the evilminded, arrogant, rapacious man, Him turn thou from our path away, Brhaspati: give us fair access to this banquet of the Gods.
8 Thee as protector of our bodies we invoke, thee, saviour, as the comforter who loveth us. Strike, O Brhaspati, the Gods revilers down, and let not the unrighteous come to highest bliss.
9 Through thee, kind prosperer, O Brahmanaspati, may we obtain the wealth of Men which all desire:And all our enemies, who near or far away prevail against us, crush, and leave them destitute.
10 With thee as our own rich and liberal ally may we, Brhaspati, gain highest power of life.Let not the guileful wicked man be lord of us: still may we prosper, singing goodly hymns of praise.
11 Strong, never yielding, hastening to the battlecry-, consumer of the foe, victorious in the strife, Thou art sins' true  avenger, Brahmanaspati, who tamest even the fierce, the wildly passionate.
12 Whoso with mind ungodly seeks to do us harm, who, deeming him a man of might mid lords, would slay, Let not his deadly blow reach us, Brhaspati; may we humiliate the strong illdoers-' wrath.
13 The mover mid the spoil, the winner of all wealth, to be invoked in fight and reverently adored,Brhaspati hath overthrown like cars of war all wicked enemies who fain would injure us.
14 Burn up the demons with thy fiercest flaming brand, those who have scorned thee in thy manifested might.
Show forth that power that shall deserve the hymn of praise: destroy the evil speakers, O Brhaspati.
15 Brhaspati, that which the foe deserves not which shines among the folk effectual, splendid, That, Son of Law I which is with might refulgentthat- treasure wonderful bestow thou on us.
16 Give us not up to those who, foes in ambuscade, are greedy for the wealth of him who sits at ease, Who cherish in their heart abandonment of Gods. Brhaspati, no further rest shall they obtain.
17 For Tvastar, he who knows each sacred song, brought thee to life, preeminent over all the things that be. Guiltscourger-, guiltavenger- is Brhaspati, who slays the spoiler and upholds the mighty Law.
18 The mountain, for thy glory, cleft itself apart when, Angiras! thou openedst the stall of kine. Thou, O Brhaspati, with Indra for ally didst hurl down waterfloods- which gloom had compassed round.
19 O Brahmanaspati, be thou controller of this our hymn and prosper thou our children. All that the Gods regard with love is blessed. Loud may we speak, with heroes, in assembly.

Indus Script hieroglyphs on Eran_Vidhisha coins deciphered:
yupa Skambha as mEDha ‘pillar, stake’ rebus: meD ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic) dula ‘pair’ rebus: dul ‘cast metal’ kadasa kanda? rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’ Thus, fire-altar for cast copper/iron.
bhagila text: rebus: गर्भगळीत, गर्भगिळीत, गर्भगीळ (p. 225) [ garbhagaḷīta, garbhagiḷīta, garbhagīḷa ] a (गर्भ & गळणें) That has dropped or cast the womb. भागी (p. 607) [ bhāgī ] c भागीदार or भागीलदार c A partner, an associate in a joint concern. 2 A sharer or partaker; a shareholder.
DAng ‘hill range’ rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ PLUS kuThara ‘crucible’ rebus: kuThAru ‘armourer’
Vedi in Vedisa: vedi ‘fire-altar’ rebus: vetai ‘alchemy, transmutation of base metals into precious metals’ vedha ‘pierced hole’ rebus: vedi ‘fire-altar’ वेदिका f. a sacrificial ground , altar VarBr2S
kulyA ‘hood of snake’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’ kolle ‘blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelter’ nAga ‘snake’ rebus: nAga ‘lead (ore)’.eraka ‘knave of wheel’ rebus: eraka ‘moltencast, copper’
poLa ‘zebu’ rebus: poLa ‘magnetite ore’
tAmarasa ‘lotus’ rebus: tAmra ‘copper’
kANDa ‘water’ rebus: khaNDa ‘metal implements’
gaNDa ‘four’ rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’ (see Ujjain symbol)
kariba ‘elephant trunk’ ibha ‘elephant’ rebus: karb ‘iron’ ib ‘iron’ kanga ‘brazier’ sangaDa ‘brazier’ rebus: kanka ‘gold’ karNI ‘supercargo’
kuTi ‘tree’ rebus: kuThi ‘smelter’ kuThara ‘crucible’ rebus: kuThAru ‘armourer’ koThAri ‘warehouse’ dhAv ‘strand of rope’ rebus: dhAtu ‘ore’ kandit ‘bead’ rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’.
Eran, anonymous 1/2 AE karshapana,  five punch ‘symbol type’
Weight:  5.35 gm., Dimensions: 20×19 mm.
‘Ujjain symbol’, Indradhvaja, railed tree, river.
Blank reverse
Reference:  Pieper 482 (plate coin) http://coinindia.com/galleries-eran1.html
kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Eran-Vidisha, 300-200 BCE, Copper, 8.63g, 4 symbols type http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?topic=30019.0
I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Eran-Vidisha, 200 BCE, Copper (2), 1.98g & 2.43g, Swastika with Taurine armswww.coinnetwork.com

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc' PLUS kāca 'loop' rebus:kāsa 'bronze' 

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.
kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
karabha 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron' 
Six spokes emanating from 'dotted circle' are topped with multiple counts (2 or 3 each) of ligatured hieroglyphs: arrow, loop (with variants of ovals, buds, fish, hour-glass, one-horned young bull). dula 'two' rebus; dul'metal casting' kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements' kāca 'loop' rebus:kāsa 'bronze' mũh 'oval shape' rebus: mũh 'ingot' ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'metal alloy' aya 'iron' vajra (octagonal)samghāta 'adamantine glue', samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager'

I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
“Vidisha, Sanchi and Udayagiri complex, together with Dhar, Mandu and Eran, all in Madhya Pradesh, have yielded ancient metallic objects (exemplified by the Delhi iron pillar)…”  http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/12-14/features3372.htm

 पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu'  पोळ [pōḷa], 'magnetite, ferrite ore'

Indus script hieroglyphs: karaDi ‘safflower’ rebus: karaDa ‘hard alloy’; poLa ‘zebu’ rebus: poLa ‘magnetite’; jasta ‘svastika’ rebus: sattva ‘zinc, spelter’ kariba ‘trunk of elephant’ ibha ‘elephant’ rebus: karb ‘iron’ ib ‘iron’; kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ sangaDa ‘brazier, standard device’ rebus: sangaTas ‘collection of implemnts’ dhAV ‘ strand of rope, dotted circle’ rebus: dhavaD ‘smelter’; dhAtu ‘mineral ore’; kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'
 Infixed within the ‘standard device’ is a ‘twist’ hieroglyph: meDha ‘twist’ rebus: meD ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic)

tAmrasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
Billon drachm of the Indo-Hephthalite King Napki Malka(Afghanistan/Gandhara, c. 475–576). Obverse shows a fire altar with a spoked wheel on the left kanda ‘fire-altar’ eraka ‘knave of wheel’ rebus: eraka ‘moltencast, copper’. Eraka! this is the source for the name of Erakina. Eraka is also the appellation of Subrahmanya in Swamimalai, a place renowned for cire perdue castings of pancaloha murti-s and utsava bera-s. Eraka is an emphatic semantic indicator of copper metalwork and metalcastings.
We have been that a Mihirakula coin showed a fire-altar. Toramana’s coins are also found in plenty in Kashmir. (J F Fleet, Coins and history ofToramanaIA,1889 26.) See:  “Notes on the Yuezhi – Kushan Relationship and Kushan Chronology”, by Hans Loeschner. Journal of Oriental Numismatic Society 2008, p.19
Erakina has a fort in ruins attributed to the Dangis who are kshatriyarajput,  in Bundelkhand region, Rajasthanand spread across the statesMadhya PradeshUttar PradeshBiharHimachal PradeshHaryana(in Haryana and Panjab they are called kshatriya Jat) , GujaratUttrakhand,Maharashtra,ChhattisgarhJharkhandPunjab, and Nepal. Dangi is a dialect of Braj Bhasha.
Eran was a coin-minting centre. Semi-circle on Eran coins may have signified a crucible: kuThAra ‘crucible’ Rebus: kuThAri ‘warehouse keeper’ kuThAru ‘armourer’.
Eran was on the Bharruch (Bhragu Kachha), Ujjain to Kaushambi, Mathura, Taxishila trade route.
Pushkalavati, 300-100 BCE, Cast Copper, Hollow Cross / Chaitya

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 

metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'.
Mahasenapatis-Andhra, Kondapur,Sagamana Chutukula, 100 BCE, Bronze, 4.8g, Swastika

kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'blacksmith'

satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc'

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'

metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'.
Kuninda, Amogabhuti, 200-100 BCE, Silver Drachm, 2.1g, Swastika on Reverse

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'.

Chutus of Banavasi / Anandas of Karwar, Mulananda, 78-175 CE, Lead, 9.55g, Swastika to left of Tree-in-railing

karabha 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron' 

metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS khANDa 'division' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc'.

gaNDa 'four' rebus:kaNDa 'fire-altar' PLUS dhAu 'strand' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore'.

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 

Vidarbha, 200 BCE, Cast Copper, 3.86g, Swastika with Taurine symbol

gaNDa 'four' rebus:kaNDa 'fire-altar' PLUS dhAu 'strand' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore'.

satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc.
eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus:erako 'moltencast, copper' āra 'six' rebus: arā 'brass' kund opening in the nave or hub of a wheel to admit the axle (Santali) Rebus: kunda 'turner' kundār turner (A.)
kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Vidarbha, Pavani and Bhandara region, 300-100 BCE, Cast Copper,Tri-Kakani, 10.95g

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’  metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS khANDa 'division' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc'.
Taxila, 185-160 BCE, Bronze, 2.3g, Swastika in reverse direction

satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc'

metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS khANDa'division' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. satthiya 'svastika' rebus: svastika 'pewter' jasta 'zinc'.

eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus:erako 'moltencast, copper' āra 'six' rebus: arā 'brass' kund opening in the nave or hub of a wheel to admit the axle (Santali) Rebus: kunda 'turner' kundār turner (A.)

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 

Taxila, 300-100 BCE, Copper, 1.5 Karshapana, 21mm, 12.43g, Elephant / Lion

gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'fire-altar', 'implements'

metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058) Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic)  PLUS baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'. gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'fire-altar'

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 

Obv: Tree-in-railing (center); Elephant (left); Swastika (top right); Indra-dhwaja-in-railing ie triangle headed standard (right); River with swimming fish/turtles (bottom)

Rev: blank/uniface

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 

Eran-Vidisha, 300-200 BCE, Copper, 8.63g, 4 symbols type

bhagila495Bhagila, AE 3/8 karshapana,  four punch 'bull type''

Weight:  3.11 gm., Dimensions: 19x19 mm.

Bull on the left, railed tree on right; river at the bottom; legend punch at the top
    reading bhagilaya which is followed by a lotus flower.
Blank reverse
Reference:  S. Tiwari collection, p.161, type 1,var.2 / Pieper 495 (plate coin)

kui ‘tree’ rebus: kuhi ‘smelter’ 
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'

Vidarbha, 300-100 BCE, Copper, 0.92g, 6-arm Wheel / Ujjaini symbol

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui 'tree' Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.
dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Vidarbha, anonymous uniface die-struck AE

Weight:  1.50gm., Dimensions: 14x12 mm.

Railed tree in centre; taurine fixed in open railing on the left with a nandipada on top left; on the
     right is an Indradhvaja and at the bottom a river.
Blank reverse
Reference: Mitchiner (MATEC) 4775-4780
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'

sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui 'tree' Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.
dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'
Eran, anonymous 3/4 AE karshapana,  three punch 'symbol type'

Weight:  6.10 gm., Dimensions: 22x22 mm.

Obv.: Indradhvaja, railed tree and 'Ujjain symbol'.
Rev.: Worn traces of obverse design of Ujjain undertype depicting 'bull facing railed
Reference: BMC, pl.XVIII, no.16 / Pieper 481 (plate coin)
sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'manager, arranger'.

kui 'tree' Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.
dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'

I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Eran, anonymous 1/8 AE karshapana,  two punch 'symbol type'

Weight:  1.15 gm., Dimensions: 11x9 mm.

Railed tree on the left and Ujjain symbol on the right.
Blank reverse
Reference:  Pieper 477 (plate coin)

 kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter'.
dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'

I suggest that the so-called Ujjaini symbol with four dotted circles orthographed on a + glyph refer to  dhātu 'strand' rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore', thus four mineral ores: copper PLUS magnetite, haematite and laterite (all red ores). Hence, the hypertext is read rebus as: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'. gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar. Thus, a fire-altar for dhātu 'mineral ores'.'
Eran, anonymous AE karshapana,  five punch 'horse type'

Weight:  10.25 gm., Dimensions: 23x22 mm.

Horse on the left, railed tree in centre,elaborate Ujjain symbol on the right, railed
     Indradhvaja on top, river at the bottom.
Blank reverse
Reference: BMC, pl. XVIII, no.14/ Pieper 467 (plate coin)

Horse:ghōṭa m. ʻ horse ʼ ĀpŚr., °ṭī -- f. Aśvad., °ṭaka -- m. Pañ- cat., °ṭikā -- f. lex. [Non -- Aryan, prob. Drav., origin EWA i 361 with lit.]
Pa. ghōṭaka -- m. ʻ poor horse ʼ; Pk. ghōḍa -- , °ḍaya -- m., °ḍī -- f. ʻ horse ʼ, Gy. as (Baluči) gura, pers. gôrá, pal. gṓri f., arm. khori ʻ horse ʼ, eur. khuro m., °rī f. ʻ foal ʼ, boh. pol. khuro ʻ stallion ʼ; Ash. g&otodacutemacr;ṛu m. ʻ horse ʼ, gọ̈̄räˊ f., Wg. g&otodacutemacr;ṛa, Pr. irí, Dm. gọŕɔ m., guŕi f., Paš. gōṛāˊ, Niṅg. guṛə́, Shum. gṓṛo, Woṭ. gōṛ m., gēṛ f., Gaw. guṛɔ́ m., guṛīˊ f., Kal. urt. ghɔ́̄ŕ*l, Bshk. gór m., gēr f., Tor. ghō m., ghəē f. (aspirate maintained to distinguish from  ʻ bull ʼ J. Bloch BSL xxx 82), Mai. ghå m., ghwī f., Chil. Gau. gho, Sv. ghuṛo m., g'uṛia f., Phal. ghūṛu m., °ṛi f., Sh. *gōu (→ Ḍ. gōwá), K. guru m., °rü f., (Islamābād)guḍü, rām. pog. ghōṛŭ, kash. ghuṛŭ, ḍoḍ. ghōṛō, S. ghoṛo m., °ṛī f., L. P. ghoṛā m., °ṛī f., in cmpds. ghoṛ -- , WPah. ghoṛo m., °ṛī f., °ṛu n. ʻ foal ʼ, Ku. ghoṛo, A.ghõrā, in cmpds. ghõr -- , B. ghõṛā m., ghũṛi f. (whence Chittagong ghunni ODBL 695), Or. ghoṛā°ṛī, Bi. ghor°rā, OAw. ghora, H. ghoṛghoṛā m., ṛī f. (→ N. Bhoj. ghoṛā, N. °ṛi, Bhoj. °ṛī), Marw. ghoṛo m., G. ghoṛɔ m., °ṛī f., °ṛũ n. ʻ poor horse ʼ, M. ghoḍā m., °ḍī f., Ko. ghoḍo.
*ghōṭakarūpa -- , *ghōṭāgāra -- . Addenda: ghōṭa -- : S.kcch. ghoṛo m. ʻ horse ʼ, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ghòṛɔ, m. ʻ horse ʼ, kṭg. ghòṛu m. ʻ small horse, colt ʼ, Garh. ghoṛū m. ʻ horse ʼ, Brj. ghoṛoghorom., ghoṛīghorī f. (CDIAL 4516) Rebus: goṭī f. ʻlump of silver' (G.) goṭi = silver (G.) koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati).P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goṭā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goṭa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goṭo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. goṭ ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ(CDIAL 4271)

kui 'tree' Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'

Eran-Vidisha AE 1/2 karshapana, Bhumidata, six punch type
Weight:  5.10 gm., Dimensions: 21x21 mm.
Railed tree in centre; elephant on left and railed Indradhvaja on right;
     river at the bottom; on top right taurine in fixed railing and on top left legend
     punch reading rajno bhumidatasa
Blank reverse
Reference: S. Tiwari collection, p. 196, var.3 / Pieper 489 (plate coin).

kui 'tree' Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.
kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā 'implements'

S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Centre
July 21, 2017