Asura Varuṇa (Bhaga < Bonga -- Santali) upholder of oath -- Sreenivasa Rao (2012) and Ramachandra Narayan Dandekar (1939)
Varuṇa is Sun, Bhaga and is cognate with sing bonga, 'sun' (Santali). Uṣas, divinity dawn, is Bhaga's sister.
2 m. ʻ noose, snare, cord, fetter ʼ RV., pāśaka -- m. lex., pāśī -- f. ʻ rope, fetter ʼ Śiś., °śikā -- f. ʻ leather strap on plough ʼ Kr̥ṣis. [~ spāśa -- . -- √paś 2] Pa. pāsa -- m. ʻ sling, tie, fetter ʼ, °aka -- m. ʻ a bow (for dress) ʼ; Pk. pāsa -- , °aya -- m. ʻ noose ʼ, pāsiyā -- f. ʻ little do. ʼ; Kt. pōš ʻ trap, net ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) paš ʻ bird -- snare of a horsehair noose, noose ʼ (but phaš in BelvalkarVol 95); WPah.jaun. pāśiyā ʻ snare ʼ, (Joshi) pāśī ʻ hanging ʼ; Ku. pã̄so ʻ suffocation by hanging ʼ (whence pasyūṇo ʻ to throttle ʼ); N. pāso ʻ net ʼ; A. pāh ʻ fringe of short hair ʼ, pāh -- zāl ʻ fishing -- net ʼ; B. pāsʻ noose ʼ; Or. pāsa ʻ net ʼ; Mth. pās ʻ net ʼ, kes -- pās ʻ lock of hair ʼ; H. pās, pāsā, pã̄sā m. ʻ noose ʼ, pāsī f. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; OG. pāsaü m. ʻ noose ʼ, Ko. pāsu; Si. pasa ʻ sling, net (to capture wild animals) ʼ. -- Ext. with -- ḍa -- in Bi. pasrā ʻ fishing -- net ʼ.(CDIAL 8133)
1 m. ʻ die, dice ʼ MBh., °aka -- m. Mr̥cch. [Poss. with Lüders PhilInd 120 hyper -- sanskritism from MIA. pāsa(ka) -- < prāsaka -- m. ʻ die ʼ lex. (cf. prāsyati ʻ lays a wager ʼ TāṇḍBr. and prāsa -- ). It does not appear in any language differentiating pr -- from p -- or -- s -- from -- ś -- . Moreover the meaning ʻ lump of metal ʼ in N. H. M. may indicate a different origin]
Pa. pāsaka -- m. ʻ die ʼ, Pk. pāsaga -- m., Ku. pã̄so, N. B. pāsā; Or. pasā, (Bastar) pāsā ʻ game of dice ʼ, OAw. sāri -- pāṁsā; H. pāsā m. ʻ die ʼ (→ P. pāsā m.), G. pāsɔ m., M. phāsā m. (infl. by forms of
pāśa -- -- with p -- ~ ph -- ?), Si. pasa -- äṭa. -- N. pāso ʻ head of an iron instrument (such as axe or spade) ʼ rather than < 2 ~ *spāśa parśvadha -- ; Or. pasā ʻ iron ring through which plough iron is thrust ʼ; H. pāsā m. ʻ lump, cube, lump of metal ʼ; M. pās f. ʻ silver ingot, iron share of harrow ʼ.(CDIAL 8132)
Pāśa is held as a weapon, by Ganeśa, Yama and Varuṇa. Varuṇa's vāhana is mangar, makara associated with the ashes of a funeral pyre. (See Santali glosses). Varuṇa associated with Pāśa and Makara is thus the arbiter of a mortal's life-activities, the upholder of oath. As an Indus Script hieroglyph/hypertext, makara is rendered rebus: dhmakara 'forge-blower, blacksmith'. The ashes of the forge-blower are thrown into a tank in which mangar> makara, alligators live. The ashes live on with Varuṇa's vāhana.
Thus, Pāśa and makara associated with Varuṇa are associated with metalwork: pās f. ʻ silver ingot, iron share of harrow ʼ (Marathi) and dhmakara 'forge-blower, blacksmith'.
mákara m. ʻ crocodile ʼ VS.Pa. makara -- m. ʻ sea -- monster ʼ; Pk. magara -- , mayara<-> m. ʻ shark ʼ, Si. muvarā, mōrā, Md. miyaru. -- NIA. forms with -- g -- (e.g. H. G. magar m. ʻ crocodile ʼ) or -- ṅg<-> (S. maṅgar -- macho m. ʻ whale ʼ, maṅguro m. ʻ a kind of sea fish ʼ → Bal. māngar ʻ crocodile ʼ) are loans from Pk. or Sk. or directly from non -- Aryan sources from which these came, e.g. Sant. maṅgaṛ ʻ crocodile ʼ.(CDIAL 9692) ->->varuṇḥ वरुणः [वृ-उनन् Uṇ.3.53] 1 N. of an Āditya (usu- ally associated with Mitra); Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. -2 (In later mythology) The regent of the ocean and of the western quarter (represented with a noose in hand); यासां राजा वरुणो याति मध्ये सत्यानृत्ये अवपश्यञ्जनानाम्; वरुणो यादसामहम् Bg.1.29; त्वं विश्वेषां वरुणासि राजा ये च देवा ये च मर्ताः Ṛv.2.27.1; प्रतीचीं वरुणः पाति Mb.; अतिसक्तिमेत्य वरुणस्य दिशा भृशमन्वरज्यदतुषारकरः Śi.9.7. -3 The ocean. -4 Firmament. -5 The Sun. -Comp. -अङ्गरुहः an epithet of Agastya. -आत्मजः N. of the sage Jamadagni; ततः सुतास्ते वरुणात्मजोपमाः Mb.7. 155.45. -आलयः, -आवासः the ocean. -ईशम्, -देवम्, -दैवतम् the Nakṣatra Śatabhiṣaj. -पाशः 1 a shark. -2 the noose of Varuṇa. -लोकः 1 the world of Varuṇa. -2 water. (Apte)
वरुण [p= 921,2] N. of a partic. magical formula recited over weapons R. (v.l. वरण); m. (once in the TA1r. वरुण्/अ) " All-enveloping Sky " , N. of an आदित्य (in the वेद commonly associated with मित्र [q.v.] and presiding over the night as मित्र over the day , but often celebrated separately , whereas मित्र is rarely invoked alone ; वरुण is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods , and is commonly thought to correspond to the Greek: Ποσειδῶν, pronounced [pose͜edɔ́͜ɔn] of the Greeks , although of a more spiritual conception ; he is often regarded as the supreme deity , being then styled " king of the gods " or " king of both gods and men " or " king of the universe " ; no other deity has such grand attributes and functions assigned to him ; he is described as fashioning and upholding heaven and earth , as possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called माया , as sending his spies or messengers throughout both worlds , as numbering the very winkings of men's eyes , as hating falsehood , as seizing transgressors with his पाश or noose , as inflicting diseases , especially dropsy , as pardoning sin , as the guardian of immortality ; he is also invoked in the वेद together with इन्द्र , and in later Vedic literature together with अग्नि , with यम , and with विष्णु ; in RV. iv , 1 , 2, he is even called the brother of अग्नि ; though not generally regarded in the वेद as a god of the ocean , yet he is often connected with the waters , especially the waters of the atmosphere or firmament , and in one place [ RV. vii , 64 , 2] is called with मित्र , सिन्धु-पति , " lord of the sea or of rivers " ; hence in the later mythology he became a kind of Neptune , and is there best known in his character of god of the ocean ; in the MBh. वरुण is said to be a son of कर्दम and father of पुष्कर , and is also variously represented as one of the देव-गन्धर्वs , as a नाग , as a king of the नागs , and as an असुर ; he is the regent of the western quarter [cf. लोक-पाल] and of the नक्षत्र शतभिषज् [ VarBr2S. ] ; the जैनs consider वरुण as a servant of the twentieth अर्हत् of the present अवसर्पिणी) RV. &c &c (cf. IW. 10 ; 12 &c )(Monier-Williams)
Names of gods from treaties of Mitanni
In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, c. 1380 BCE), the divinities invoked are:
|Transcription of cuneiform||Interpretation||Vedic equivalent||Comments|
|na-ša-ti-ya-an-na||Nasatya-nna||Nāsatya||Hurrian grammatical ending -nna|
|a-ak-ni-iš||Āgnis||Agni||only attested in Hittite, which retains nominative -/s/ and lengthens stressed syllables|
Aśvin, the twins, are Nāsatya (dual nāsatyau "kind, helpful") in the Rigveda; later, Nāsatya is the name of one twin, while the other is called Dasra ("enlightened giving").
Varuna, Mitra, Agni are venerated in RV 1.136
Asura Varuṇa Bhaga is upholder of the oath. Mitra, paired with Varuṇa is upholder of the covenant. Bhaga's eyes are radiant with Sun's rays (RV 1.136.2)
"King Shaushtatar (ruled c. 1430) extended the boundaries of Mitanni through the conquest of Alalakh, Nuzi, Assur, and Kizzuwatna. Egypt, under Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 BCE), defeated the Mitanni at Aleppo after a long period of contention over control of the region of Syria. Later Egyptian dynasties entered into pacts and treaties with Mitanni and the daughter of the Mitanni King Tushratta, the princess Taduhepa, was given in marriage to Amenhotep III (1391-1353 BCE) as part of a treaty which balanced power between the two nations.This treaty was put to the test during a power struggle in Washukanni between Tushratta and a relative of the previous king, Shuttarna, known as Artatama II. Egypt backed Tushratta in this conflict while the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I backed Artatama II. Tushratta seemed poised to succeed when Egypt, fearing the growing power of the Hittites, withdrew its support. Suppiluliuma I, tired of diplomacy and now free to do as he pleased without fear of Egyptian reprisal, led his forces on Washukanni and sacked it. Tushratta was assassinated by his son, perhaps in an effort to save the city. Following this conquest, Mitanni was ruled by Hittite kings." http://www.ancient.eu/Mitanni/ The name Tushratta may also be a phonetic variant of Tvaṣṭr̥, Tuisto.
Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is postulated.
"In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, ca. 1380 BC), the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked.Kikkuli's horse training text (circa 1400 BC) includes technical terms such as aika (Vedic Sanskrit eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pañca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper (Vedic Sanskrit eka, with regular contraction of /ai/ to [eː]) as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has *aiva; compare Vedic eva "only") in general. Another text has babru(-nnu) (babhru, brown), parita(-nnu) (palita, grey), and pinkara(-nnu) (pingala, red). Another text has babru(-nnu) (babhru, brown), parita(-nnu) (palita, grey), and pinkara(-nnu) (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya (Hurrian: maria-nnu), the term for (young) warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha,~ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (Mayrhofer II 358). Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaišaratha, Vedic Tveṣaratha "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer I 686, I 736). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_superstrate_in_Mitanni
1.136.01 Offer most excellent and ample adoration, and reverential oblation, to those two deities who have existed from of old; who confer happiness (on their worshippers), and delight in most sweet (libations); for they are both imperial (sovereigns, in whose honour) oblations of butter are poured out (ghr.tama_su_yate a_di_yate ya_bhya_m tau ta_dr.s'au; yadva_ ghr.tamudakam vr.s.t.ilaks.an.am prasu_yate sarvatra_nujn~a_yate ya_bhya_m tau), and who are glorified at every sacrifice, whence their might is not in any way to be opposed; their divinity is not to be resisted. [Imperial sovereigns: ta_ samra_ja_; or, sa_mra_ja = thoroughly shining, samyakra_jama_nau].
1.136.02 The most excellent dawn has been seen proceeding to the comprehensive (rite); the path of the revolving (sun) has been lighted up by (his) rays; the eyes of men (have been opened) by the rays of Bhaga; the brilliant mansion of Mitra, of Aryaman, of Varun.a, (has been lighted up by his rays), and therefore do you two accept the commendable and copious oblation; the praise-worthy and copious oblation. [The brilliant mansion: the firmament is lighted by the sun; the several names of designations or forms of the sun; several names are used to to multiply his praises].
1.136.03 (Your worshipper) has prepared ground (for tha altar), free from defect, radiant (with sacrificial fire), and conferring heaven; come to it together every day, you who are vigilant; every day (at sacrifices) receive invigorated energy (by coming hither), sons of Aditi, lords of munificence; of those two, Mitra is the animator of mankind, and so is Varun.a; Aryaman (likewise) is the animator of mankind. [The animator of mankind: ya_tayaj-janah, by whom men are being impelled to exertion, or incited to the discharge of their respective functions; as applied to Aryaman, in the repetition, it may imply one by whom the irreligious, or those not performing religious worship, may be cast into the infernal regions, ya_tya_ma_nah nipatyama_nah narake].
1.136.04 May this Soma be gratifying to Mitra and Varun.a, to be enjoyed by them as they drink of it inclining downwards; a divine (beverage), fit to be enjoyed by the gods; may all the gods, well pleased, today accept it; therefore, royal (deities), do as we request; you, who are ever truthful, do as we request.
1.136.05 Whatever individual offers adoration to Mitra and Varun.a, do you preserve him entirely unharmed from sin; (preserve) from sin the mortal who presents you (with oblations); may Aryaman protect him who is sincere in his devotion, who offers worship addressed to both (Mitra and Varun.a) with prayers; who offers worship with praises.
1.136.06 I proclaim veneration to the mighty Sun, to heaven and earth, to Mitra, to the benevolent Varun.a, to the conferer of happiness, the showerer of benefits. Praise Indra, Agni, the brilliant Aryaman, and Bhaga, so that enjoying long life, we may be blessed with progeny; we may be happy through the protecting virtues of the Soma. [varun.a_ya mi_l.hus.e sumr.l.i_ka_ya mi_l.hus.e:The first attributive is an epithet of Rudra, the showerer of desired benefits, abhimataphalasya sektre; the two next words are applied to Mitra, Varun.a and Rudra].
1.136.07 Worshiping Indra, and favoured by the Maruts, may we rely upon the protection of the gods; and may we, affluent (through their bounty), enjoy the felicity which Agni, Mitra, and Varun.a are bestowing (upon us).
Griffith: HYMN CXXXVI. MitraVaruna-. 136
1. BRING adoration ample and most excellent, hymn, offerings, to the watchful Twain, the
bountiful, your sweetest to the bounteous Ones.
Sovrans adored with streams of oil and praised at every sacrifice.
Their high imperial might may nowhere be assailed, Never may their Godhead be assailed.
2 For the broad Sun was seen a path more widely laid, the path of holy law hath been maintained
with rays, the eye with Bhagas' rays of light.
Firmset- in heaven is Mitras' home, and Aryamans' and Varunas'.
Thence they give forth great vital strength which merits praise, high power of life that men shall
3 With Aditi the luminous, the celestial, upholder of the people, come ye day by day, ye who watch
sleepless, day by day.
Resplendent might have ye obtained, Adityas, Lords of liberal gifts.
Movers of men, mild both, are Mitra, Varuna, mover of men is Aryaman.
4 This Soma be most sweet to Mitra, Varuna: he in the drinkingfeasts-, shall have a share thereof,
sharing, a God, among the Gods.
May all the Gods of one accord accept it joyfully today-.
Therefore do ye, O Kings, accomplish what we ask, ye Righteous Ones, whatever we ask.
5 Whoso, with worship serves Mitra and Varuna, him guard ye carefully, uninjured, from distress,
guard from distress the liberal man.
Aryaman guards him well who acts uprightly following his law,
Who beautifies their service with his lauds, who makes it beautiful with songs of praise.
6 Worship will I profess to lofty Dyaus, to Heaven and Earth, to Mitra and to bounteous Varuna,
the Bounteous, the Compassionate.
Praise Indra, praise thou Agni, praise Bhaga and heavenly Aryaman.
Long may we live and have attendant progeny, have progeny with Somas' help.
7 With the Gods help, with Indra still beside us, may we be held selfsplendid- with the Maruts.
Samskrtam". bhaga (IAST: bhaga) is a term for "lord, patron", but also for "wealth, prosperity". The cognate term in Avestan and Old Persian is baga, of uncertain meaning but used in a sense in which "lord, patron, sharer/distributor of good fortune" might also apply. The cognate in Slavic languages is the root bogъ. The semantics is similar to English lord (from hlaford "bread-warden"), the idea being that it is part of the function of a chieftain or leader to distribute riches or spoils among his followers. The name of the city of Baghdad derives from Middle Persian baga-data, "lord-given".
"In Rigveda, bhaga is an epithet of both mortals and gods (e.g. of Savitr, Indra and Agni) who bestow wealth and prosperity, as well as the personification of a particular god, the Bhaga, who bestows the same. In the Rigveda, the personification is attested primarily in RV 7.41, which is devoted to the praise of the Bhaga and of the deities closest to him, and in which the Bhaga is invoked about 60 times, together with Agni, Indra, the dual Mitra-Varuna,the two Ashvins, Pusan, Brahmanaspati, Soma and Rudra.
"The Bhaga is also invoked elsewhere in the company of Indra, Varuna and Mitra (e.g. RV 10.35, 42.396). The personification is occasionally intentionally ambiguous, as in RV 5.46 where men are portrayed as requesting the Bhaga to share in bhaga. In the Rigveda, the Bhaga is occasionally associated with the sun: in RV 1.123, the Dawn (Ushas) is said to be the Bhaga's sister, and in RV 1.136, the Bhaga's eye is adorned with rays.
"The 5th/6th-century BCE Nirukta (Nir. 12.13) describes Bhaga as the god of the morning. In the Rigveda, the Bhaga is named as one of the Adityas, the seven (or eight) celestial sons of Aditi, the Rigvedic mother of the gods. In the medieval Bhagavata Purana, the Bhaga reappears with the Puranic Adityas, which are by then twelve solar gods.
"Elsewhere, the Bhaga continues as a god of wealth and marriage, in a role that is also attested for the Sogdian (Buddhist) equivalent of the Bhaga. In myths related to the figure, Virabhadra, a powerful hero created by Shiva, who once blinded him.
"The common noun bhaga survives in the 2nd century inscription of Rudradaman I, where it is a fiscal term; in bhagavan for "one who possesses (-van) the properties of a bhaga-", hence itself "lord, god"; and in bhagya, and "that which derives from bhaga", hence "destiny" as an abstract noun, and also Bhagya personified as the proper name of a son of Surya." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhaga
भग b[p= 743,2] m. (ifc. f(आ and ई). g. बह्व्-ादि) " dispenser " , gracious lord , patron (applied to gods , esp. to सवितृ) RV. AV.; N. of a रुद्र MBh.; mn. = यत्न , प्रयत्न , कीर्ति , यशस् , वैराग्य , इच्छा , ज्ञान , मुक्ति , मोक्ष ,
धर्म , श्री L. [cf. Zd. bagha = Old Pers. baga ; Slav. bogu8 , bogatu8 ; Lith. bago4tas , na-ba4gas.]
Figure 6. Apąm Napāt offering a dastār as symbol of farr and victory. Detail of Shapur I’s victory relief. Bišāpur (photo A. Soudavar).http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/farr-ii-iconography Farr is a a long ribbon to be tied as headband; dast is hand, victory. The hand-delivered ribbon is termed dast-ār (victory giver).
"AIRYAMAN, an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān. The Avestan common noun airyaman-, Vedic aryaman-, means “friend, companion;” and the Indo-Iranian Aryaman was, it seems, the hypostasis of friendship, and of friendly alliance; and this being ratified at times by a formal oath, he was close to the asuras Mitra and Varuna, who upheld oath and covenant. In the Vedas he appears as one of the group of Ādityas; and with Varuna (under his by-name of Bhaga) he presided over marriage, presumably as the sealing of the bond of friendship between two families...In Iran Airyaman exercised this same function, and he is accordingly still regularly invoked at Zoroastrian weddings. Moreover, the Middle Persian proper name Bay-Aryāmān attests that in Iran too he was linked with Varuna, the Baga...A consequence of the doctrine that Airyaman will in the end purge the world with fire is that in the developed Zoroastrian theology he becomes a helper of Aša Vahišta (q.v.), lord of the creation of fire. So he is invoked with Aša on the third day of every month, having (in Sīrōza 1.3) the epithet mazdaδāta- “created by Mazdā.”" http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/airyaman-an-ancient-iranian-divinity (M. Boyce, “Airyaman,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, pp. 694-695; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/airyaman-an-ancient-iranian-divinity)
अपो-नप्तृ a [p= 47,3] ([ Pa1n2. 4-2 , 27]) m. " grandson of the waters. " N. of अग्नि or fire as sprung from water. अपां-नपात् a [p= 47,3] ([ RV. VS. ]) m. " grandson of the waters. " N. of अग्नि or fire as sprung from water (Monier-Williams).
"In the Rig Veda, Apām Napāt (Lord Varuna) is the angel of rain. Apam Napat created all existential beings (Rig Veda 2.35.2)"( Studies in ancient technology by R. J. Forbes)...Apām Napāt in Samskrtam mean "son of waters" (see Ap (water)(liquid) and grandson of Apah (water)(solid) ) and Apąm Napāt in Avestan means "Fire on Water". Samskrtam and Avestan napāt("grandson") are cognate to Latin nepōs and English nephew, but the name Apām Napāt has also been compared to Etruscan Nethuns and Celtic Nechtan and Roman Neptun...Apām Napāt is sometimes, for example in Rigveda book 2 hymn 35 verse 2, described as the supreme creator deity who originates in the cosmic waters (see: Agni). Apam Napat has a golden splendour and is said to be kindled by the cosmic waters."
"...Apąm Napāt is given the title of Ahura (Lord) which otherwise is accorded only to Ahura Mazdā himself and to Mithra; and in two passages he is shown as acting with Mithra to maintain good order in human society: “Mithra of wide pastures will further all ruling councils of the lands, and pacify (the lands) that are in turmoil. Henceforth mighty Apąm Napāt will further all ruling councils of the lands, and restrain (the lands) that are in turmoil” (Yt. 13.95)...a magnificent verse in honor of Apąm Napāt himself (Yt. 19.52): “We worship the High Lord (bərəzantəm ahurəm), kingly, shining, Son of the Waters, who has swift horses, the hero who gives help when called upon. (It is) he who created men, he who shaped men, the god amid the waters, who being prayed to is swiftest of all to hear.” This verse has echoes in a hymn in honor of the Vedic Apām Napāt, who is hailed there as one “who has created all beings through his power as Asura” (Rigveda 2.35.2). The opening words of the Avestan verse are used in all Zoroastrian invocations of Apąm Napāt, and he is accordingly also known, since Sasanian times at least, as Borz or Borǰ, a reduction of Avestan bərəzant-, the “High One,” a title which is glossed in one Pahlavi text (Zātspram 3.18) as Borz ī Ābānnāf 'The High One who is Son of the Waters.' " http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/apam-napat (M. Boyce, 1986)
"Varuna (/, -/; Varuṇa वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta(justice) and Satya (truth). He is found in the oldest layer of Vedic literature of Hinduism, such as the hymn 7.86 of the Rigveda. He is possibly one of the earliest Indo-Aryan triads with parallels to a Avestan deity, possibly Iranian Ahura Mazda.His streak of demonic violent tendencies, according to Hindu mythology, led to his demotion and Indra taking away most of his powers.
In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara (part fish, sea creature) and his weapon is a Pasha (noose, rope loop). He is the guardian deity of the western direction In some texts, he is the father of god Brahma and of Vedic sage Vasishtha
Varuna is found in Buddhism, for example as Suiten in Japanese Buddhist mythology He is also found in Jainism...Varuna is related to the root vṛ ("vri") which, states Adrian Snodgrass, means "to surround, to cover" or "to restrain, to check". With uṇan, it gives "Varuna" meaning "he who covers or binds all things".The sea or ocean is the perceived manifestation of him, while the universal law or Ṛta(dharma) is the abstract binder which connects all things. His name is related to Indo-European root "uer" or "to bind". In later Hindu literature, the term Varuna evolves to mean god of waters, the source of rains and the one who rules over the Nagas (divine sea serpent) – myths important in Hinduism and Buddhism..He is mentioned in many Rigvedic hymns, such as 7.86–88, 1.25, 2.27–30, 8.8, 9.73 and others...His relationship with waters, rivers and oceans is already mentioned in the Vedas, and according to Hermann Oldenberg, he is already the Indian version of Poseidon in these texts...For example, thet hymn 5.3 of the Rigveda states:
— Rigveda 5.3.1-2, Translator: Hermann Oldenberg...Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath, and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e.g. RV 5.63.3), although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e.g. RV 7.60.12). Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra... Rigvedic hymn 5.70 calls Mitra-Varuna pair as rudra...". (Adrian Snodgrass (1992). The Symbolism of the Stupa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 120–122 with footnotes; Hermann Oldenberg (1988). The Religion of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 104; F. B. J. Kuiper (1975), The Basic Concept of Vedic Religion, History of Religions, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Nov., 1975), pp. 107-120.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varuna
Rudra-śiva and Varuna-Mitra are paired ldivinities of protection of the rta, knowledge and contracts.
"Both Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra derive from an Indo-Iranian common noun *mitra-, generally reconstructed to have meant "covenant, treaty, agreement, promise." This meaning is preserved in Avestan miθra "covenant." In Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan languages, mitra means "friend," one of the aspects of bonding and alliance...
"The first extant record of Indic Mitra, in the form mi-it-ra-, is in the inscribed peace treaty of c. 1400 BC between Hittites and the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni in the area southeast of Lake Vanin Asia Minor. Mitra appears there together with four other Indic divinities as witnesses and keepers of the pact." (Thieme, Paul (1960), "The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 80.4. pp. 301-317.)
Ahura Mazdā confers investiture, Mithra stands behind him on top of an enormous lotus (as a symbol of Apam Napāt). Taq-e Bostan: high-relief of Ardeshir II investiture; from left to right: Mithra, Shapur II, Ahura Mazda. Lying down: dead Roman emperor Julian.
Mithra (left) in a 4th-century investiture sculpture at Taq-e Bostan in western Iran. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitra
Varuna himself arose from the depth of the ocean and pleads with Rama for forgiveness.