Indus script anthropomorphs, dhamma samjñā responsibility signifiers of Bronze Age metal workers

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Anthropomorphs are metalwork catalogues of Bronze Age Sarasvati civilization. The anthropomorphs are responsibility badges, professional calling cards, of Bronze Age metalworkers as evidenced by Indus Script epigraphs. 
Hieroglyphs are: Boar, curved horns, ram, young bull, spread legs
Image result for anthropomorphs bharatkalyan97Anthropomorph, Sheorajpur, Kanpur Dist. Inscribed with fish hieroglyph. ca. 2nd millennium BCE. 4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. Hieroglyphs are: curved horn, ram, spread legs, fish
Hieroglyphs are: upraised arm, curved horn, ram, seated (penance)

Image result for anthropomorphs bharatkalyan97
Madarpur: Copper anthropomorphs (India Archaeology 1999-2000, ASI< Delhi, Plate 157, p. 234) 
Image result for anthropomorphs bharatkalyan97Image result for anthropomorphs bharatkalyan97Oriya. Land grant by Raja Purushottam Deb. See the metal implements shown on the signature line of inscription. Hieroglyphs: curved horn, ram

Hieroglyphs (words in parentheses shown below) on the four types of Indus Script anthropomorphs are hypertexts which signify: 

kundaṇa 'fine gold', (koḍiya ‘young bull’) 
kōndaṇa, 'engraver, lapidary', (khōṇḍa 'pannier')
mẽṛhet 'iron', (mẽḍhā 'curved horn')
aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'(ayo 'fish')
barea 'merchant' (barāh, baḍhi 'boar')
karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman' (karṇika 'spread legs')

eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'copper'.
ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' 
(seated pose) kamaha 'penance' rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. 

1. mẽḍhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' meḍhoram, a sheep; mē̃ḍh 'ram' rebus: mẽṛhet iron'; Медь [Med'] (Russian, Slavic) 'copper'.
2. barāh, baḍhi 'boar' rebus: vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel';
3. eka-shingi 'one-masted' (of koṭiya, 'dhow'); 
4. kōḍu horn;   koḍiya ‘young bull’, kōṛe young bullock; खोंड khōṇḍa 'pannier'; खोंड  [ khōṇḍam A young bull, a bullcalf (Marathi). rebus: kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kũdār 'turner, brass-worker' कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving; कोंदण  kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems. 2 Beaten or drawn gold used in the operation. कोंदणें (p. 102) kōndaṇēṃ v i To be stuffed, obstructed, blocked up: also to be filled more comprehensively or freely; as a house or room with smoke; the heavens with thunder or a loud sound, or darkness; a person with rapture or joy &c. Ex. नादें अंबर कोंदलें ॥. Also ब्रम्हानंदें कोंदले ॥. Also to fill or pervade; as तों चंद्र गेला मावळोनि ॥ काज्हरा गगनीं कोंदला ॥. (Marathi)
5. karṇika 'spread legs' rebus: karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman'.


खोंड (p. 122) khōṇḍa A variety of जोंधळा. (Marathi) The word for the 'pannier' is: खोंडा [khōṇḍā] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood (Marathi). Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi). కుందనము (p. 289kundanamu kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి. Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold. Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold (DEDR 1725)









குந்தனம kuntaṉam n. < T. kundanamu. 1. Interspace for enchasing or setting gems in a jewel; இரத்தினம் பதிக்கும் இடம். குந்தனத்தி லழுத்தின . . . ரத்தினங்கள் (திவ். திருநெடுந். 21, வ்யா. பக். 175). 2. Gold, fine gold; தங்கம். (சங். அக.) 

kunda कुन्द [p= 291,2] a turner's lathe L.; one of Kubera's nine treasures.  kunda1 m. ʻ a turner's lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda -- 1] N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻ smoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdākõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdibākū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi. kund ʻ brassfounder's lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m.(CDIAL 3295)  kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra -- : kunda -- 1, kará -- 1] A. kundār, B. kũdār°ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297) কুন্দ (p. 240kunda a (turner's) lathe. ̃কার n. a turner. (Bengali)

Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull. Nk. khoṛe male calf. Konḍa kōḍi cow; kōṛe young bullock. Pe. kōḍi cow. Manḍ.kūḍi id. Kui kōḍi id., ox. Kuwi (F.) kōdi cow; (S.) kajja kōḍi bull; (Su. P.) kōḍi cow. Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. ko·ṛ (obl.ko·ṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kw&idieresisside;ṛ (obl. kw&idieresisside;ṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn. Ga. (Oll.) kōr (pl. kōrgul) id. Go. (Tr.) kōr (obl. kōt-, pl. kōhk) horn of cattle or wild animals, branch of a tree; (W. Ph. A. Ch.) kōr (pl. kōhk), (S.) kōr (pl. kōhku), (Ma.) kōr̥u (pl. kōẖku) horn; (M.) kohk branch (Voc. 980); (LuS.) kogoo a hornKui kōju (pl. kōska) horn, antler.(DEDR 2199, 2200)



Type IV Anthropormorph standing inscribed with one-horned young bull and ligatured with head of a boar
A composite copper anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting a Varaha'boar' head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period.

Hieroglyph: mẽḍhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep; mē̃ḍh 'ram' Rebus: Медь [Med'] (Russian, Slavic) 'copper'.

मृदु, मृदा--कर 'iron, thunderbolt'  मृदु mṛdu 'a kind of iron' मृदु-कार्ष्णायसम्,-कृष्णायसम् soft-iron, lead.
Santali glosses.
Sa. mE~R~hE~'d `iron'.  ! mE~RhE~d(M).
Ma. mErhE'd `iron'.
Mu. mERE'd `iron'.
  ~ mE~R~E~'d `iron'.  ! mENhEd(M).
Ho meD `iron'.
Bj. merhd(Hunter) `iron'.
KW mENhEd
@(V168,M080)

— Slavic glosses for 'copper'
Мед [Med]Bulgarian
Bakar Bosnian
Медзь [medz']Belarusian
Měď Czech
Bakar Croatian
KòperKashubian
Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian
Miedź Polish
Медь [Med']Russian
Meď Slovak
BakerSlovenian
Бакар [Bakar]Serbian
Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian[unquote]
Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic, Altaic) 'copper'.  

One suggestion is that corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.

ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' 
PLUS  karṇika 'spread legs' rebus: karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman'.
barāh, baḍhi 'boar' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'.
eka-shingi 'one-masted' koḍiya ‘young bull’, koṭiya 'dhow', kũdār 'turner, brass-worker'.


Thus, Type IV anthropomorph with Indus Script hieroglyphs signifies a steersman/helmsman, metals expert, metals turner (brass worker), metals merchant with a dhow, seafaring vessel.

Type III Anthropomorph seated with upraised arm
Photograph of one of the 6 Madarpur anhropomorphs (After Fig. 1 in: R. Balasubramaniam, et al, 2002, Studies on ancient Indian OCP period copper, in: IJHS 37.1, pp. 1-15). http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/2000616d_1.pdf
eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'copper'.
ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' 
PLUS kamaha 'penance' rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. 

Type III anthropomorph with Indus Script hieroglyphs signifies a copper worker, metals merchant with mint.
Type II Anthropomorph, seated
Seated position of Anthropomorph.
Seated position if signifying penance, the rebus reading is: kamaDha 'penance' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage.

meḍh 'iron' mRdu 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) PLUS meḍh 'merchant' mēdhā 'expert' 
PLUS kamaDha 'penance' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.
Thus, Type II anthropormph signifies a copper/iron merchant with mint.


Type I Anthropomorph, Standing with fish inscription
Sheorajpur (Inv. No O.37a, State Museum of Lucknow. 
ayo 'fish' aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal', mẽḍhā 'curved horn' meḍḍha 'ram' rebus: ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' karṇika 'spread legs' rebus: karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman'.
Thus, Type I anthropomorph signifies a steersman (of seafaring vessel), metals expert, metals merchant.
வராகம்¹ varākam , n. < varāha. 1. Boar, swine; பன்றி. கோலமேனி வராகமே (திருவாச. 30, 5). 2. The boar-incarnation of Viṣṇu, one of tacāvatāram, q.v.; திருமாலின் தசாவதாரத்துள் பன்றியுருக்கொண்ட அவதாரம். (பிங்.) 

varāhá -- , varāˊhu -- m. ʻ wild boar ʼ RV. Pa. Pk. varāha -- m. ʻ boar ʼ; A. B. barā ʻ boar ʼ (A. also ʻ sow, pig ʼ), Or. barāha, (Sambhalpur) barhā, (other dial.) bā̆rihābāriā, H. bā̆rāh m., Si. varā. varāhamūla n. ʻ name of a place in Kashmir ʼ Rājat. [varāhá -- , mūˊla -- ?] K. warahmul ʻ a town at west end of the valley of Kashmir ʼ.(CDIAL 11325, 11326) वराहुः Ved. A boar, hog (RV 1.61.7, viii.77.10, ix.97.7, x.28.4, i.88.5, i.121.11);  वराह [p= 923,2] m. (derivation doubtful) a boar , hog , pig , wild boar RV. &c (ifc. it denotes , " superiority , pre-eminence " ; » g. व्याघ्रा*दि); N. of विष्णु in his third or boar-incarnation (cf. वराहा*वतारTA1r. MBh. &amp.


Numismatics varāhá 

Nala dynasty of Bastar (Mahakantaraor 'Great Forest') region, king Varaha, c. 410-430 CE, repousse or bracteate half unit in gold, 0.64g. Obv: Seated Nandi, a crescent above; legend ShriVa ha ra in box-headed Brahmi letters below. 

The Nalas of Bastar claimed descent from king Nala of the Mahabharata. Varaha or Varaha Raja, a contemporary of the Vakataka king Narendrasena, was the first ruler of the dynasty to strike coins. On this extremely rare half unit, the name of king is wrongly engraved as 'Vahara'insteadof 'Varaha'.

http://classicalnumismaticgallery.com


Imperial Pratiharas, Bhoja 1 & successors (c. CE 836-85), Srimadadivaraha Dramas, Silver or high graded billon, Adi Varaha (the Boar Incarnation of Lord Vishnu) facing right and holding Mother Earth (Prithvi) on his left elbow on obv, Devanagari early Nagari legend srimadadi / varaha in two lines on rev. http://www.rajgors.com

வராகன்¹ varākaṉ , n. < Varāha.  Pagoda, a gold coin = 3½ rupees, as bearing the image of a boar; மூன்றரை ரூபாய் மதிப்புள்ளதும்பன்றிமுத்திரை கொண்டதுமான ஒரு வகைப் பொன்நாணயம். (அரு. நி.) 

வராகபணம் varāka-paṇam , n. < id. +. A coin; நாணயவகை. (S. I. I. viii, 87.)
வராகன்புள்ளிக்குளிகை varākaṉ-puḷḷi-k-kuḷikai, n. < id. +. An ancient coin; பழைய நாணயவகை. (M. E. R. 1922-23, p. 114.) వరహా (p. 1132) varahā or వరా varahā. [from Skt. వరాహము.] n. The gold coin bearing the impression of a boar (వరాహము.) and termed a pagoda. equal to 3 1/2 rupees. కరుకువరహా a coin equal to four rupees. కంఠీరవరాయ వరహాలు Kanterai pagodas, 105 of which are equal to rupees 305-7-4. The weight called వరహాయెత్తు is equal to 52.56. grains avoirdupois. తొమ్మిదిచిన్నములయెత్తు బంగారపుముద్రిక. 

గండు among tradesmen is a cant word for వరహా a pagoda. Thus in arithmetic గ1 is one pagoda; గగ one thousand pagodas. 

గద్దె (p. 355) gadde or గద్దియ gadde. [Tel.] n. A high seat. ఉన్నతపీఠము; a throne సింహాసనము. An obsolete coin వరహా

கட்டிவராகன் kaṭṭi-varākaṉ , n. < கெட்டி +. A gold coin, the varākaṉ. கட்டிலோ மெத் தையோ கட்டிவராகனோ. (குற்றா. குற.).

கருக்குவராகன் karukku-varākaṉ , n. < id. +. New pagoda coin on which the figures are well defined; புதுநாணயம். (W.) కరుకు వరహ a four-rupee pagoda. 
தங்கவராகன் taṅka-varākaṉ , n. < தங்கம் +. Pagoda, a gold coin = 3½ rupees; 3½ ரூபாய் பெறுமான வராகன் என்னும் பொன்னாணயம். புள்ளிவராகன் puḷḷi-varākaṉ , n. < id. +. Star Pagoda = 3½ rupees; மூன்றரை ரூபா மதிப் புள்ள பொன்னாணயவகை. (W.) பூவராகன் pū-varākaṉ , n. < பூ³ +. Star pagoda, gold coin bearing the impression of a boar; வராக உருக்கொண்ட நாணயவகை.
புள்ளிக்குளிகைவராகன் puḷḷi-k-kuḷikai- varākaṉn. An ancient coin; பழைய நாணய வகை. (M. E. R. 32 of 1923.)

பணவெடை paṇa-v-eṭai , n. < பணம்² +. Goldsmith's weight = 4 kuṉṟi-maṇivarākaṉ- eṭai; 4 குன்றிமணி அல்லது அரைக்கால் வராகனெடை யுள்ள பொன்னிறை. (W.) வராகனெடை varākaṉ-eṭai


n. < id. +. Weight of a pagoda, a unit of weight = &frac516; rupee = 54 gr.; பொன்நிறுக்கும் நிறைவகை. वराह [p= 923,2] a particular measure (Monier-Williams)
நிசானிவராகன் nicāṉi-varākaṉ , n. An ancient coin; பழைய நாணயவகை. (பணவிடு. 117.)
பருமுளைவராகன் parumuḷai-varākaṉ n. A coin; நாணயவகை. (M. E. R. 1923-4, p. 110.)
பிரதிபுண்ணியவராகன் pirati-puṇṇiya- varākaṉn. An ancient coin; பழைய நாணய வகை. (பணவிடு. 116.)

பரங்கிக்கள்ளவராகன் paraṅki-k-kaḷḷa- varākaṉn. < பரங்கி +. An inferior coin; மட்ட மான நாணயவகை. (சரவண. பணவிடு. 206.)
மம்மதுகான்வராகன் mammatukāṉ- varākaṉn. A coin; நாணயவகை. (பணவிடு. 116.)

வராகபுடம் varāka-puṭam , n. < id. +. Calcining metals with 20 or 50 cakes of cowdung; 20 அல்லது 50 எருவிட்டுப் போடப் படும் புடம். (மூ. அ.)


హొన్ను (p. 1394) honnu honnu. [Kan. from Drav. పొన్ను.] n. Gold, the gold coin called a pagoda, సువర్ణము, కాంచనము, వరహా. "హొన్నంచు పక్కెర." N. ii. 81. "హొన్నుగట్టుల మెచ్చని ఘనరథములు." Swa. v. 50. హొన్నిత్తడి honn-ittaḍi. (హొన్ను+ఇత్తడి.) n. A kind of brass. ఇత్తడిలోభేదము. Ta. poṉ gold, metal, iron, wealth, ornament, beauty; pudendum muliebre; poṉṉaṉ one who has gold, one precious like gold; poṉṉavaṉ one precious like gold; poṉmai colour of gold; poṟpa beautifully, elegantly; poṟpu beauty, decoration, abundance; poṟpi (-pp-, -tt-) to beautify, adorn; poṟṟa golden, excellent. Ma. pon gold. Ko. pon id.; ? on liver-coloured stripe on spine of cattle of another colour; on(n) n. pr. bullock; fem. ony. To. pïn gold; gold bangle in dairy; privates of small girls; wïn four-anna piece; gold coin (in song = pi·r boṇm [see 5457]). Ka. pon gold, metal. Koḍ. ponnï (pom-, pon-) gold. Tu. ponnu id. Te. ponnu id. Kur. pannā 
iron(DEDR 4570) Ko. vi·ra·ṇy vaṇm small gold coin put in mouth of dead man and burned with body (paṇm coin). To. pi·r boṇm small, old coins in bag, used at funeral. Koḍ. bira·nï pagoda (= 4 rupees)(DEDR 5457)

S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center
July 25, 2017

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