Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Sarasvati sarovar, Ad badri seen from space

The sarasvati sarovar 80m X 80m close to Kapal Mochan soma sarovar (20km. from Jagadhri, Yamunanagar dist.) not far from Paonta Saheb in HP, is a tribute to swargiya Moropant Pingle ji. The sarovar has come up at the same spot where he did yajna in search of Vedic River Sarasvati and started on a scientific discovery process with a team led by the late Padmashri Vakankar ji.

What a privilege it is to be living in times when River Sarasvati is coming to bless us and future generations. One Jaina muni told me that we will have no punarjanmam because of this tirthasthanam. We owe it to Pawankumar, Dy. Forest Officer, Haryana who constructed the sarovar in 7 days the moment he got the nod from the DC, Yamunanagar who mentioned the approval from Hon'ble Jagmohan ji.

There is a saying in Tamil. muzhu poosanikkaaye sottile maraikka mudiyaadu (one can't hide a whole pumpkin in a morsel of cooked rice). Sarasvati heritage, viraasat is effulgent like the sun and will live as long as mahaakaala is engaged in taandava nrityam demonstrating the cosmic order of dharma.

We need to get a Sarasvati River Basin Development Authority organized by Govt. of India and reach reborn Sarasvati into Gujarat by the svarnajayanti year. She has travelled about 1000 kms. from Manasarovar glacier (Mt. Kailas) upt Gedra Road, Barmer Dist. in a 40 ft. wide 12 ft. deep channel. We need to take our children to Ahmedabad for a sacred in the dip in reborn Sarasvati there.

Last year Karthik Purnima day, lakhs visited both Kapala mochan and Ad Badri Sarasvati sarovar. This deepam has to be handed over to the youngest nation on the face of the globe. This is our kapala mochan.



Kapal Mochan mela ends in Haryana

Saturday, November 24 2007 21:24 (IST)

Yamunanagar, Nov 24 (UNI) The famous historical and religious Kapal Mochan Mela concluded as about 10 lakh devotees took the holy dip at the stroke of midnight in the three historic sarovars here.

They lit 'diyaas' on the banks of the sarovars, which coupled with the electric lights, decorated the gurudwaras and templespresenting a picturesque scene.

The Kapal Mochan fair has its roots in the age-old myth that it relieves the sins of all the three eras. As per the belief of the people, taking a bath in Kapal Mochan sarovars washes away sins which are even as grave as 'Brahma Hatya'.

The Kapal Mochan 'dham' here is also believed to have been the workplace of Maharishi Ved Vyas, the son of Maharishi Prashar and the creator of great epic Mahabharata.

There are five 'tiraths' in different directions of the Kapal Mochan. In the north is Tirthraj Kapal Mochan itself and on other sides are Som Sarovar, Rin Mochan, Surya Kund and Chandar Kund.

These sarovars are known to provide fame and fortune to those who come to take the holy bath.

The holy place has a great following among the Sikh community too, since in 1687 Guru Gobind Singh had rested here for 52 days after the Bangani battle.


Thursday, September 11, 2008

Seal find from Afghanistan showing a spearing motif

Olaf Sprenger has reported (September 2008) a new seal find from Afghanistan showing the unique yet recurring motif of a person kicking and spearing a bison (bull):

See large image at

The mleccha reading of the motif is as follows:
Mlecchita vikalpa (cryptography): kolsa = to kick the foot forward (Santali) kola = killing (Te.)
Mleccha (words from Sarasvati civilization linguistic area) Rebus: kol = metal; pancaloha (Ta.) kol, kolhe, ‘the koles, an aboriginal tribe if iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals’ (Santali) kol = kollan-, (blacksmith or smith in general)(Ta.lex.) kollar = those who guard the treasure (Ta.lex.) cf. golla (Telugu) khol, kholi_ = a metal covering; a loose covering of metal or cloth (G.)
I do not know how to interpret the pair of rectangles. The slightly atrophied sign 'claws of crab' can be read.
claws of crab: kakr.a_; cf. karkat.i_ 'female crab' (Skt.) rebus: kangar 'furnace' (Kashmiri).

The seal can thus be identified as denoting the furnace (kangar) of a smelter (kolhe).

12 Sept. 2008

Spearing a buffalo/bull/bison: a Sarasvati hieroglyptic composition

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Wednesday, July 2, 2008

Ancient metallurgy and mleccha writing on pure tin ingots

Ancient metallurgy and mleccha writing on pure tin ingots

The finds of two pure tin ingots in a shipwreck in Haifa inscribed with Sarasvati hieroglyphs (so-called Indus script)should be of interest to scholars and researchers of Hindu-judaic studies and language studies, to unravel further the nature of the maritime civilization contacts between ca. 4th to 2nd millennium BCE.

The hieroglyphs have been read as connoting ranku dhaatu 'tin mineral'.

It is intriguing indeed that the words, ranku dhaatu, represented as hieroglyphs are tagged to the lingua franca, mleccha (cognate meluhha).

It is interesting to note the Hebrew phrase: melech ha-melachim.

Who were the meluhha, mleccha, melachim who seem to have dominated the dawn of the early metal-alloy-age? See notes on melech at: Aha, early metallurgists, karmaara, kamar made these using cire perdue technique which is used even today by vis'vakarma smiths in Swamimalai on Kaveri river basin.

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

'Metallurgy of tin ingots and a writing system of ca. 3rd millennium BCE"

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

Sarasvati and Rama Setu -- WAVES 2008 presentations

1. Title: Rama Setu, Vedic Traditions and struggle to protect the world heritage

Rama Setu is an abiding cultural tradition of not only Bharatam but of many countries of the world. Rama Setu embodies the quintessence of Valmiki's statement: 'Ramo vigrahavaan dharmah.' Setubandhanam becomes a tirthasthanam in the Vedic tradition of remembering the pitr-s and offering pitr-tarpanam on Ashadha amavasya day every year. The ongoing struggle to protect this world heritage has been long, protracted and tough. Active support of world citizens will make a difference and this struggle to protect an abiding, sanatana tradition will succeed.

Rama Setu tradition is a continuum of Vedic traditions defining dharma in action. Two messages are conveyed in such a definition: 1. determination and samarthyam can find solutions even to bridge the ocean; 2. to establish dharma and to fight against a-dharma, the effort is imperative. Skandapurana is emphatic that three s'ivalingas were installed by Sri Rama, one at Rameshwaram (Dhanushkodi end), one at Tirukkedeeshwaram (Talaimannar end) and the third in the middle of the Setu. Setubandhanam becomes a tirthasthanam in the Vedic tradition of remembering the pitr-s and offering pitr-tarpanam on Ashadha amavasya day every year.

2. Title: Ongoing attack on Hindu symbols: Sarasvati, Vedic language and cultural traditions

The discovery of over 2000 archaeological sites on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati and the possibility of identifying Vedic people from new discoveries such as those in Bhirrana provide a challenge to all researchers to unravel the language spoken by the creators of the Sarasvati civilization. There is an ongoing attack from some in Western academia, on Hindu symbols including svastika and the denial of the Vedic River Sarasvati whose ancient channels have been emphatically, scientifically identified. This state of academic denial is pathetic and is governed by a compulsive motive to establish Aryan supremacy through invasion or migration scenarios. Such Aryan Invasion/Migration Theories are in fact the myths. Sarasvati is not a myth but a reality and will flow again in North-west India thanks to the brilliant effort of scholars, researchers, scientists and engineers of Hindusthana.

Title 3: Sarasvati, Vedic language and cultural traditions

The discovery of over 2000 archaeological sites on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati and the possibility of identifying Vedic people from new discoveries such as those in Bhirrana provide a challenge to all researchers to unravel the language spoken by the creators of the Sarasvati civilization. I have posited that mleccha was the lingua franca and mlecchita vikalpa was the writing system of the civilization evidenced by nearly 4000 epigraphs containing 'signs' and 'pictorial motifs' -- most of which are hieroglyphs. The resource of an Indian Lexicon providing comparative lexemes from over 25 ancient languages of Bharatam including Vedic provide a framework for testing the mleccha spoken by Yudhisthira in his conversations with Khanaka and Vidura and the mlecchita vikalpa mentioned by Vatsyayana as one of the three arts: 1. des'a bhaashaa jnaanam; 2. akshara mushthika kathanam; and 3. mlecchita vikalpat (correctly interpreted as cryptography). Given the fact that many mleccha word occur in the Vedic texts (words which cannot be explained by Indo-European constructs), it is possible to provide a framework for language studies of ancient Bharatam and of Vedic times, which integrate language as a medium of cultural expression by a community of speakers, rejecting the language family metaphor. Many ancient texts clearly refer to mleccha as a 'language' or 'dialect'. The framework for a Sarasvati Hieroglyph Dictionary was presented.

Read this document on Scribd: Sarasvati and mleccha

Metaphors of Sarasvati civilization in a cultural continuum

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Rama Setu – heritage

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Saturday, June 21, 2008

Mother divinity: River Sarasvati, Hindu civilization traditions and metaphors created by rishi-s and artisans

Read this document on Scribd: sarasvatimetaphor

Mother divinity: River Sarasvati, Hindu civilization traditions and metaphors created by rishi-s and artisans

Hindu civilization has a unique metaphor: river as mother, river as divinity; vedic River Sarasvati as mother, as divinity. In many parts of India, the lingua franca phrase used for a river is: nayi maa, (mother river); in Ca_ran.a sahitya (the songs of bards) of Rajasthan and northern India, the word used for a river is amba_ ‘mother’, evoking the Rigvedic phrase ‘ambitame’ (best of rivers). Rigveda also refers to River Sarasvati in the following exquisite terms: sarasvati_ saptathi_ sindhuma_ta_ (Sarasvati, the seventh, the mother river). The artisans of the civilization which was nurtured on the banks of the river depicted their life-activity of smithy through many metaphors derived from mleccha (meluhha) lingua franca in a linguistic area. A river is also depicted as a kumbha ‘sacred pot’ as in kumbhamela held every 12 years in a confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers at Prayag.
A metaphor for Sarasvati river is kumbha...

Read on...

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

Mohenjodaro, mound of the dead; stupa as temple.

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Friday, June 6, 2008

Making Vedic Sarasvati flow again...

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Thursday, May 22, 2008

Water supply and history: Sarasvati river basin


Antiquity Vol 82:315, March 2008, pp 37-48. Rita Wright et al.

Water supply and history: Harappa and the Beas regional survey

Rita P. Wright, Reid A.Bryson and Joseph Schuldenrein

1 Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place,New York 10003, USA (Email: rita.wright@...)
2 Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin, 1225 W.Dayton St., Madison, WI 53706-1695, USA (Email: rabryson@...)
3 Geoarchaeology Research Associates, 5912 Spencer Avenue,Riverdale, New York 10471, USA (Email: geoarch@...)

Introducing the methods of archaeoclimatology, the authors measure the relative locus of the monsoons, the intensity of winter rains and the volume of water in the rivers in the Upper Indus, in the region of Harappa. They also note the adoption of a multi-cropping agricultural system as a possible strategy designed to adjust to changing conditions over time. They find that around 3500 BC the volume of water in the rivers increases, and the rivers flood, implying annual soil refreshment and the consequent development of agriculture. By contrast, from around 2100 BC the river flow begins
to fall while the winter rains increase. This time-bracket correlates nicely with the brief flourishing of Harappa. The locally derived evidence from Harappa combined with the Beas survey data provide a model for understanding the abandonment of settlements in the Upper Indus and possibly the wider civilisation.

The study notes that though the Ghaggar-Hakra (Sarasvati River Basin) was once dynamic, it ceased to supply water to this region at some time in the past.

The focus of this paper is on the history of the river and its interaction with the local climate and their impacts on agricultural systems in the Upper Indus. Specifically, the study addresses the environmental conditions under which settlement and agriculture developed in the Upper Indus, in the area of the city of Harappa and along the nearby Beas river, where 18 Indus settlements have been discovered.

Site locations of Harappa and the regional Beas survey are:
1. Lal Tibbe; 2 and 3. Chak Purbane Syal; 4. Chak 90-12; 5. Kusamsar; 6. Chak 75-15; 7. Bagh Thal; 8. Vainiwel; 9. Chak 104-10R; 10. Chak 113-10R; 11. Chak 123-10R; 12. Chak 133-10$; 13. Chak 160-WB; 14. Qutab Pur; 15-18 Dunyapur Complex

Of these 11 sites were founded on the Beas river. By 2600 BCE, Beas settlements numbered 18, one was 14 ha, four were between 5-10 ha and the others were less than 5 ha.

The authors claim to introduce a new tool for exploring climatic environment of ancient cultures called Archaeoclimatology, a high-resolution, site-specific climate model. By 1300 BCE, Harappa was perhaps abandoned and at that time, only four Beas sites were sustained.

Tracing Intertropical Convergence History (ITC) of monsoons, the authors note that “For millennia, the land was marginal for rain-fed agriculture…Suddenly about 3600 BCE there was a dramatic change o higher energy stream flow with much more discharge. Increased stream dynamism persisted for 1500 years (c. 2100 BCE). If anything, precipitation decreased locally. These hydrographic changes probably promoted the development of riverine agriculture.” In conclusion, they note: “Though the Ghaggar-Hakra was once dynamic, it ceased to supply water to this region at some time in the past…The hydrographic and climatic models presented here suggest that at around the time of the Harappan emergence, stream activity and precipitation patterns underwent dramatic transitions following over 4000 years of Holocene stability. Geomorphological and pedological evidence points to realignments of channels in the immediate vicinity of the Harappa site, as the Ravi River migrated north during the Late-Harappan period (c. 2000 BCE) and soils formed on relatively stable alluvial surfaces along the Beas…”

Read this doc on Scribd: ant0820037

Friday, May 16, 2008

Continuum of Indian Culture and Social Life -- Ravindra Kumar

Indian Culture and Social Life
Friday, 16 May 2008, 11:02 am Column: Dr. Ravindra Kumar
Indian Culture and Social Life by Dr. Ravindra Kumar

Indian Culture is one of the ancient cultures of the world and due to certain unique features; it is still before us in its original form. Similarly, Indian social life has had an identity of its own and for centuries, it has taught many lessons to mankind. Many of these are not only important but worth adopting today. What are the unique features of Indian Culture? How it is still in its original form before us? And what are the lessons that Indian social life has taught to the human world which are important and worth adopting? Before discussing these questions, it would be better to know the meaning of culture.
Meaning of Culture:
Culture, that is ‘Samskriti’ as is evident, is derived from the word ‘Samskar’. It describes the behaviour of the inhabitants of a human society or a particular nation. It is culture that identifies the behaviour of the inhabitants of a human society or a particular nation. For example: In relation to India it is often regarded that its inhabitants are never reluctant to accept a stranger as a guest and are hospitable towards him. Indians are followers of disciplined, decent and most importantly non-violent life style. They are believers of the principle of human equalitarianism. So, the above mentioned features – honorable treatment to a guest, disciplined, decent and non-violent way of life and belief in the principle of human egalitarianism – are the basic characteristics or behaviors of people of India. When these characteristics are identified by the rest of the world, it becomes ‘Samskriti’, that is culture.
Basic Features of Indian Culture, Development in Various Faces and Impact on Social Life:
Regarding Indian culture I have said that it is one of the most ancient cultures of the world. Among other ancient cultures there are Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures but they have now lost their original identity. Contrary to this, Indian Culture has still maintained its identity. And certainly, the reasons behind this identity are the basic qualities [behaviours] of the inhabitants of India which can be seen since the beginning till the present day and which have influenced the social life here. What are these qualities or traits? We will get to know them better if we examine them in the context of the present, keeping in mind the history of the past.
Human history is traced back to ten million years. In many Indian religious texts, there is mention of a period earlier than this. Moreover the period of human development is fixed to be between 40 and 12 or 15 thousands years ago. These arguments remain between scholars and archeologists. In all these periods, India had human life, that too in its own way. But here I do not wish to confuse you with the ancient history that is not very clear, nor do I wish to confuse myself at this juncture.
It is not so clear but there are evidences of inhabitance or of social life of people in India that goes back to 5000 years B.C. or more. This was the Stone Age and on the basis of evidences, it is said that the inhabitants of India, at that time lived in tribes. They were engaged in agriculture and cattle rearing. These evidences are based on excavation and surveys conducted at various sites. Excavations conducted at several parts of [present] Pakistan, Gujarat, Tamilnadu [especially Chennai] and West Bengal print these evidences. Besides these, two things are clear too:
• Indians lived a collected life; and

• They loved non-violence.
So, 5000 B.C., Indians had the qualities of collectiveness and non-violence. And these two, certainly, influenced the lives of people. On the basis of collectiveness, the people here faced difficulties collectively and also enjoyed pleasure together. And they were eager to progress on the basis of non-violence. Let me specify that agriculture and cattle rearing are the signs of love for non-violence and collectiveness in life.
We have with us more clarity, the history of 2500 B.C., which provide us the knowledge of the life style which includes their culture and social system. This period is known as the Indus Valley Civilization. Cities revealed at Harappa and Mohan-Jo-Daro or Kot Digi, Kalibangan, Kathiawad and Saurashtra and excavations in south and east reveal that collectiveness and non-violence were present in the life style and social structure of Indians in a much developed form. Besides, planning and uniformity are also clear. We find that the cities were developed according to a plan. There were provisions to cope up with natural calamities, those too with collective means. Cattle shed and grain-houses were there. Items of daily use were in advanced state. Indians had language, script and religious philosophy. More over excavations reveal that Indians had contacts with inhabitants of other parts of the globe too. In this context we may mention the names of the cities of Mesopotamia, Turkmanian towns, Bahrain, Assyria etc.
Scholars around the globe are quite familiar with many features of Indian social life style, which include Joint Family system; custom of arranged marriages and religiousness. All these have been helpful in development or progress by collective efforts, facing challenges unitedly, nearness and feeling of unity, even though for different reasons. But now the joint families can be seen disintegrating, the custom of arranged marriages is weakening and the feeling of religiousness too seems to have been tainted. I, however, would like to mention here that 65% of India’s population still lives in villages and a large part of village population still lives in joint families. In cities too there are joint families. In India the practice of arranged marriages is still prevalent that is the rate of divorce is comparatively low. Indian people are religious by nature. Why and what is being done by certain institutions to cause its decay is not the topic here, so I come back to the issue of culture and social life of the Indus Valley Civilization. As I have already mentioned, at this time collectiveness and non-violence were present in a larger degree than before. Besides, there were other qualities too which explain the culture and social life of India:
• Constant strive towards development;

• Orderliness, Planning and Unity;

• Religiousness; and

• Contact and Business with inhabitants of other parts of the world, are the signs of the unique concept of Indian Culture and society – ‘the whole world is a family’
With their advent in India, the Aryans brought many qualities to this country. They had intelligence, skill and knowledge. Aryans themselves were proponents of unity and religiousness. Here the Aryan Culture with above mentioned features mingled with Indian inhabitants and their culture and stratified the social life too.
Much is talked about many confrontations between Aryans and Dravidians which I do not deny. But I can say with certainty that the intermingling of Aryan Culture with Indian Culture did not alter the fundamental or basic features of Indian Culture i.e. the basic characteristics of Indian Culture remained unaltered. Collectiveness or non-violence, progressive outlook or other above mentioned features, they all remained as they were. Moreover, they entered in Aryans’ lives too. Besides, the way of life of Aryans was imbibed by the Indian culture.
From Aryan life style, tradition of rites, meditation, faith and rituals started in Indian lives. The stream of knowledge burst forth. A new era began. There was much more comprehensiveness. There was introduction of philosophy in which forbearance and tolerance were supreme; the kind of introduction which even today is important. In short we can say that Dravidian-Aryan Cultures became the Indian culture. From here began the cohesive outlook which later became one of the main features of Indian culture and social life.
During 326-25 B.C., Alexander fought battles on Indian land. He never realized his dream of victory although he did temporarily win some parts in North-West. Greek camps were established in these regions. It was natural that contact was established between Indians and Greeks living in camps. Even Alexander himself was impressed with many features of Indian life style. As a result Greek and Indian cultures influenced each other especially in the war, philosophy, poetry, sculpture, architecture, theatre and literature etc.
In 232 B.C., Emperor Ashoka died. After him, Shakas from Iranian area arrived in India. After that came Kushanas and then, from Central Asia came the Hunas. All of these brought their own culture and mingled with Indian Culture. They gave their best features to Indian Culture and social life. Today not only Greek but Shaka, Kushana and Huna characteristics or features are also present in Indian culture.
Arab too started to influence the people of India by establishing their rule and by living in many parts of Sindh and afterwards in rest of India. We may say that Arabs who brought Islamic culture to India became a part of the cohesive Indian Culture, which now is a permanent part of it. In Islam fraternity or brotherhood and internal equality occupy supreme position. Additionally it has faith in one Supreme Authority. These features affected the Indians and became a part of its culture as I have already mentioned. Additionally the art, language, rites, sculpting, dress and literature etc. brought by the Muslims [Arabs] too affected the social life of Indians. The cohesive Indian Culture opened its doors to that culture also. Today many palaces, buildings and religious places are evidences in support of this fact. But I would say that in spite of being cohesive, the Indian culture never lost its fundamental attributes or form which it propagated before the world in the beginning. Whatever cultures came in contact with it, they adopted its good features, became comprehensive, and kept living though many of its contemporary cultures vanished.
Many Europeans brought their culture to India in 15th and 16th century. Dutch, English, French and Portuguese are the main among them. We know that up to 1947, India remained under English rule. It was obvious that European culture especially English influenced the Indian social life. It happened. We can mention decency, punctuality and discipline in context of life style. Along with that, we can say that the fields of education, development and globalization too were strengthened by English Culture. Geographical unity, transport, communication and political awareness too prospered. Today, all this is present in the Indian culture and social life permanently.
In India, especially the north-east, there was the influence of Monghol Culture. Not only that many others too influenced it from time to time, no matter what the basis of contact was. The basis may be trade or interchange of opinion or any other medium. But we should understand that when thousands of years ago other cultures mingled with Indian Culture, it influenced other cultures and the lives of people also. It never departed from its fundamental principles because these principles or features have been welfaristic for all. They have the capacity of patronage. That is why other cultures have been preserved in India.
Indian philosophy, system and sacraments have had influence on many parts of the world. We can see this influence by the intermingling of Indians – Greeks after the attack of Alexander. And why only then, before that too we find several examples in this regard. Then Buddhist philosophy and other religious thoughts influenced not only Asia but all most all continents. These religious thoughts are the basis of Indian Culture.
In historical context we consider many great cultures of the world. May be they were more developed than Indian culture. In this regard I can mention the name of Egyptian Culture whose some of the monuments are still incomparable. But the question is where these cultures are today? No where. They have vanished contrary to this; Indian Culture is alive in its original form and continues to influence the social life of Indians.
From historical chronological point of view, we started discussion about Indian Culture from Stone Age. In that period we found non-violence and collectiveness in lives of Indians. At that time these great sacraments were principal or main subsequently, Indian culture has remained constant for thousands of years. Subsequently, it has constantly been towards development, religiousness, forbearance and tolerance or the concept of global familyhood. Now, the picture of Indian Culture that emerges before us after the factual analysis of history is that it is:
• Symbolic of Unity in diversity;

• Cohesive or coordinating;

• Forbearing and Tolerant;

• All welfaristic; and

• Symbol of non-violence.
Additionally, searching for truth and ‘Live and Let Live’ concepts are encouraged here. It has given directions to Indian social life and directed its inhabitants to treat on the path of religiousness so that they may be able to achieve ‘Peace’, the aim of life, through continuous progress and by having their existence safe. It has been leading the way in day to day life and establishing harmony between ‘Jnana’ [Knowledge] and ‘Karma’ [deed].
Present Situation:
Recently we have bid good bye to the 20th Century. Whenever some one departs or leaves, it is but natural to recall the events associated with the departed. 20th Century is unforgettable due to many events. Remembering it we will find much that is welfaristic but also much that is unfortunate. But at the close of 20th Century, if we look at Indian culture, we find it giving the message of prosperity, happiness and eventual peace through its unique features, not only to Indians but to the whole humanity. Indian social life is influenced by these features of Indian Culture and today the world that is suffering from so many problems, facing a number of difficulties can learn a lot from it, can accept its call to consider the whole world a family.
I agree that today the social life of Indians does not seem to lead by the features or characteristics and message of their unique culture; it seems that Indians themselves are becoming indifferent to it. It too seems that probably their behaviour is being directed from somewhere else. But I am confident that this culture that is dedicated to all will remain in existence, move forward and not only inspire the social life of Indians but step forward for the welfare of the entire human world.
Dr. Ravindra Kumar is a universally renowned Gandhian scholar, Indologist and writer. He is the Former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Meerut, India.

Sarasvati Civilization continuum and decoding Indus script

Sarasvati Civilization continuum and decoding Indus script

Two presentations were made in Jammu University, History Department on 15 May 2008 by Dr. S. Kalyanaraman; Dr. Amitabh Mattoo, Vice-Chancellor was the Chief Guest and Prof. Nirmal Singh, Head of the Department of History, Jammu University presided:

1. Powerpoint presentation on Hindu-Sarasvati Civilization continuum
2. Mlecchita Vikalpa: Indus script encodes mleccha speech

Both pdf documents are appended, to be viewed/downloaded as e-monographs. More details are available on 13 ebooks available for browsing/download at

Kalyanaraman, 16 May 2008

Read this doc on Scribd: Revisiting Sarasvati 2008 (ppt)

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Friday, May 2, 2008

Arrow hieroglyphs on Kandiyur megalithic pots

Megalithic pots with arrow-work graffiti found (April 2008) at Sembiankandiyur village in Nagapattinam district.

Reading and meaning: metal casting workshop (with furnace). The pots might have been used to transport cast metal (ingots). Cf. d.ha_l.ako = a large metal ingot (G.)

dol ‘likeness, picture, form’ (Santali)
d.ol ‘arrow’ (Santali)
Rebus: dul ‘cast metal in a mould’ (Santali)

ka_n.d.a ‘arrow’ (G.); rebus: kan.d. ‘altar, furnace’ (Santali).
s’al (arrow); Rebus: s’al (workshop).

Other vikalpa hieroglyph readings in mleccha (linguistic area of Sarasvati civilization)Read at...

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Peopling of India: abstracts of genetic studies

Peopling of India: Abstracts of genetic studies

The grand narrative which emerges from these studies is clear and emphatic. Peopling of India was an indigenous and autochthonous evolution. There are markers of gene flows OUT of India. All so-called jaati or vanavaasi groups are of the same gene pool of India. This is consistent with the work, Indus script encodes mleccha speech which demonstrates the essential semantic unity of all bharatiya or Indian languages in a linguistic area of Sarasvati civilization from ca. 7500 BCE.

I shall be grateful for information on any specific, additional studies should be added to this compendium. Also, comments, suggestions and conclusions which can be drawn -- and presented in simple terms for incorporation in school/college text books – excerpted or deduced from the intensely technical nature of the genetic study results.


Read this doc on Scribd: genetics Ethnic India: A Genomic View, With Special Reference to Peopling and Structure by Basu et al (Genome Research)

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Partha P Majumder (Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India), Peopling of India: Insights from Genetics in: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences
Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India:
An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric,
linguistic and biological evidences
Anthropology and Human Genetics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700 108, India
*Corresponding author (Fax, 91-33-2577-6680; Email,

Read this doc on Scribd: austroasiaticinpeoplingofindia

Bamshad, M. J. et al. - Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations
Bamshad, M. J. et al. - Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations -
Bamshad, M. J. et al. - Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations -
Bamshad, M. J. et al. - Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations -
Bamshad, M. J. - lecture at the workshop ‘Anthropology, Genetic Diversity and Ethics’ (Milwaukee, 1999)
Bhattacharyya, N. P. et al. - Negligible Male Gene Flow Across Ethnic Boundaries in India -
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. - Genes, Peoples and Languages
Chakrabarti, C. S. et al. - Genetic Relationships among Some Tribal Groups inhabiting the North-eastern, Eastern and Sub-Himalayan Regions of India
Cordaux, R. et al. - mtDNA Analysis reveals Diverse Histories of Tribal Populations from India
Coupé, C. & J. M. Hombert - From Africa to Australia: Elements for an Early Coastal Route
Das, K. et al. - Population Structure and Genetic Differentiation among 16 Tribal Populations of Central India -
Disotell, T. R. - Human Evolution: The Southern Route to Asia
Edwin, D. et al. - mtDNA Diversity among 5 Tribal Populations of Southern India
Gadgil, M. et al. - Peopling of India: Demographic History, Global Genetic History, mtDNA Base Sequences
Gadgil, M. - India’s Biological Diversity
Human Races Calculator (genetic distances)
Jorde, L. - lecture at the workshop ‘Anthropology, Genetic Diversity and Ethics’ (Milwaukee, 1999)
Kivisild, T. et al. - The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers persists both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations
Kivisild, T. et al. - Deep Common Ancestry of Indian and Western-Eurasian mtDNA Lineages
Kumar, V. and B. Mohan Reddy - Status of Austro-Asiatic Groups in the Peopling of India
Majumder P. P. - Ethnic Populations of India from an Evolutionary Perspective
Majumder, P. P. - Indian Caste Origins Genomic Insights
Majumder, P. P. et al. - Human-specific Insertion-Deletion Polymorphisms in Indian Populations
Misra, V. N. - Prehistoric Human Colonization of India

Mukherjee, N. et al. - Population Movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India
Naidu, J. - lecture at the workshop ‘Anthropology, Genetic Diversity and Ethics’ (Milwaukee, 1999)
Purkayastha, P. - Ancestral Echoes in Indian Genes I
Purkayastha, P. - Ancestral Echoes in Indian Genes II
Qamar, R. et al. - Y-chromosomal DNA variation in Pakistan
Quintana-Murci, L. et al. - Y-chromosome Lineages Trace Diffusion of People and Languages in Southwestern Asia
Roychoudhury, S. et al. - Genomic Structures and Population Histories of linguistically Distinct Tribal Groups of India
Roychoudhury, S. et al. - Fundamental Genomic Unity of Ethnic India is revealed by Analysis of mtDNA
Skulj, J. et al. - Relationship between Indian Populations and Europeans
Spencer Wells, R. et al. - The Eurasian Heartland: A Continental Perspective on Y-chromosome Diversity Journey of Mankind - the peopling of the world. In: Genomic Diversity. 1999 Edited by Deka, R. Papiha, S.S.Kluwer/Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 135-152 The Place of the Indian mtDNA Variants in the Global Network of Maternal Lineages and the Peopling of the Old World by Toomas Kivisild1, Katrin Kaldma1, Mait Metspalu1, Jüri Parik1, Surinder Papiha2, Richard Villems1

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Saturday, April 26, 2008

Sembiyankandiyur megalithic pottery with graffiti marks (hieroglyphs?)

Sembiyankandiyur megalithic pottery with graffiti marks (hieroglyphs?)

Megalithic period pottery found
T.S. Subramanian (The Hindu, April 27, 2008)
Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department leads excavation
— Photo: M. Srinath

Significant finds: Pottery with graffiti marks found at Sembiyankandiyur village in Nagapattinam district.

CHENNAI: Pottery items including bowls, dishes and urns, from the Megalithic period, have been excavated at Sembiyankandiyur near Kuthalam in Mayiladuthurai taluk of Nagapattinam district by the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department.

An important finding: eight urns aligned in a particular manner, three of them with human bones inside. These might be of members of one family, according to department officials. The pottery included black-and-red ware, black ware and red ware.
The site yielded a rich collection of pottery with graffiti marks. A few iron pieces were also found.

Archaeology Department officials estimated that the pottery belonged to the Megalithic period or the Iron Age, which can be dated between 300 B.C. and A.D. 100.

Earlier discovery
The discoveries were made at the site where in 2006 school teacher V. Shanmuganathan found a polished Neolithic celt (tool) that had engravings resembling the Indus script. This celt caused a stir in archaeological circles. It was T.S. Sridhar, then Special Commissioner of Archaeology, who noticed the engravings on the polished celt. A semi-polished celt was found nearby without engravings.

The Archaeology Department decided to excavate the Sembiyankandiyur site to find out its antiquity and fix the chronology. The excavations began on February 6. Four trenches were laid at the place where the celt with the engravings were found. The first trench was laid in the garden of Mr. Shanmuganathan, the second trench at Thoppumedu which belonged to Shanmugam, a retired physical education teacher, another in the backyard of the house of Muthappa and the fourth at Padayachi Kollaimedu.
Important findings from the trenches were bowls, dishes, broken urns, full-size urns and so on. Eight urns were found to be aligned in a particular manner, three of them with human bones. Some urns had ritual pots inside. Some pots and sherds have thumb-nail impressions on them.

Designs and markings
Full-shape pots had the graffiti depicting a fish, a ‘damaru’, sun, star and a swastika. Geometric designs and marks depicting fish, sun and star and graffiti marks are often found on black-and-red ware and black ware, with the symbols sometimes repeated.

The excavations at Sembiyankandiyur were done under the guidance of Dr. S. Gurumurthi, Principal Commissioner of Archaeology; Dr. S. Vasanthi, Archaeologist; M. Muthusamy, Curator of Tranquebar Museum; S. Selvaraj and P. Gowthamaputhiran, Archaeological Officers of Thanjavur and Coimbatore respectively.

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Sea-faring smiths from Meluhha, glyptic themes on early coins

Sea-faring smiths from Meluhha, glyptic themes on early coins

Sea-faring smiths from Meluhha
-- Use of archer and thymiaterion glyphs on early coins encode mint-related mleccha words

-- Glyptic themes explained in mleccha

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Against the critical edition of Mahabharata by Dr. Arvind Sharma

Against the Critical Edition of the Mahābhārata by Dr. Arvind Sharma (20 April 2008)

Indian scholarship, pursuing a trend set by Western scholarship, has produced a ‘critical edition’ of the Mahābhārata. Let us take a closer look at the whole idea, shielding our eyes from the blinding glare of the Western sun for a moment.
One immediately notes that the idea of a critical tradition in the Hindu context is
an artificial concept. Can there be a ‘critical edition’ of the kind of oral transmission that the itihāsa represents? Similarly, it is futile to seek out ‘the original text’ of either epic. Critical editions of oral epics are the constructs of scholars; with variant readings and addenda as footnotes they give us an idea of the main story-line as it has developed over time in style and content. This has its uses as we shall see, but on a level which sacred narrative often transcends.[1]
The point is fine as far as it goes, but does it go far enough? The text of an oral epic is not meant to be fixed in the same sense as the Vedic text – part of the point of the epic text could well be the scope permitted for improvisation – albeit formulaic, if one insists. The text is meant to be a magnet, which draws material to it and not a crystal, which must stand in pristine purity. And if the text of the epic is thus even conceptually somewhat fluid, and actually perhaps even more fluid – then does not the critical text end up in creating a text which did not exist in the first place? Western writings on Hindu themes often carry allegations of fabrication. Has the cycle turned full circle and the misguided pursuit of Western methodology have culminated in the recreation of what never existed? One does not wish to run down the enterprise of which the critical tradition is an outcome, but such considerations need to be taken into account.
The situation gets worse before it gets better. We are presented with a critical text of the Mahābhārata. Let us now turn to the Mahāhbhārata itself and see what it has to say about it. According to the Ādiparva (I.57. 74-75) of the critical text, Vyāsa the “great lord, eminent granter of boons, taught the Vedas, and the Mahābhārata as the fifth Veda, to Sumantu, Jaimini, Paila, and his own son Śuka as well as to Vaiśampāyana. It is they who in their separate ways made public the collections of the Bhārata.”[2]
To begin with then, the Mahābhārata is plural document available in at least five recensions according to the critical edition; now how can there be one critical edition of a text with five recensions to begin with? This conclusion is a bit overwrought but it makes an important point. It is overwrought because the critical text claims to restore only one version of it – the one publicized by Vaiśampāyana.
One is not out of the woods yet, however.
The introduction of the great epic informs us that Vyāsa imparted his poem first to his pupil Vaiśampāyana, who in his turn recited the whole of it at the time of the great snake-sacrifice of king Janamejaya. It was then heard by the Sūta Ugraśravas who, being entreated by the Rishis assembled at the sacrifice of Śaunaka in the Nimisha forest, narrates to them the whole poem at he learnt it on that occasion. Even according to this tradition, recorded in the epic itself, before it reached its present dimensions, it had passed through three recitations.[3]
It has plausibly been suggested that the work grew in size with each recitation. Could it then not be proposed, in view of this, that the Mahābhārata as a Hindu text is supposed to grow and not diminish, that its telos as it is understood in the tradition is at odds with the very goals of modern text-critical scholarship and to that extent, once again, the critical text, in rendering a great service to Indology has done a grievous harm to Hinduism by trying to convert a lengthening sari into a shortening skirt? Here again the blow can be softened. It might be urged that the critical text is only an attempt at a snap shot of one stage of the growth of the text – in the time of the Gupta period or roughly around 500 A.D. Nevertheless it is clear that, at every step, the idea of a critical text seems to go against the grain of the tradition – it is an example of pratiloma Indology.
[1] Julius Lipner, Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (London and New York: Routledge, 1994) p. 336, note 39.
[2] J.A.B. van Buitenen, tr., The Mahābhārata (London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973) Vol. I, p. 134.
[3] M.A. Mehendale, “Language and Literature”, in R.C. Majumdar, ed., The Age of Imperial Unity (Bombay: Bharativa Vidya Bhavan, 1951) p. 246. Also see Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism (second edition) (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994) P. 83-84.

Friday, April 18, 2008

One meluhhan village in Akkad (3rd millennium BCE)

Four e-monographs:
Gadd Seals and MSS of Schoyen collection (Samples of Sarasvati hieroglyph collections outside India and Pakistan)

Read this doc on Scribd: meluhhanvillage

Read this doc on Scribd: shuilishucylinderseal

Read this doc on Scribd: vidale2004meluhhavillages

Read this doc on Scribd: Gaddseals

A note on Iron in early metals age of India:

Read this doc on Scribd: ironinmetalsage

Wednesday, April 9, 2008

Ancient ciphers, writing system, oral traditions: 3 articles Ancient Ciphers, Writing system, oral traditions in India: 3 articles by Blair Moffet and Hariscandra Kaviratna

Read this doc on Scribd: cipherwritingoraltradition

Epigraphica Sarasvati (video/slide show)

Video on

Vikalpa (alternative access): Epigraphica Sarasvati (Sarasvati hieroglyphs)

Vikalpa (also mirrored at weblog): Epigraphica Sarasvati (vox weblog)

Epigraphica Sarasvati (Sarasvati hieroglyphs or Indus script inscriptions) Slide show

10 April 2008

Mirror: Epigraphica Sarasvati (Sarasvati hieroglyphs)


This composition of a person seated in penance (kamad.ha) is entirely made up of glyptic elements read rebus as hieroglyphs related to the repertoire of a smithy and the professional competence/possessions of a metalsmith. Glyptic elements are either pictorial motifs (including for example: animals, pedestal, corn-sheaf, buffalo horns) or normalised glyphs called 'signs' -- such as 'rim of narrow-necked jar' or 'claws of a crab' or a 'standing person's body'.

Examples of rebus readings of hieroglyphs (glyptic elements):

kamad.ha 'penance'(Pkt.); rebus: 'mint'(Ta.) [ 'sitting cross-legged'(Ta.Ma.); saman.a 'ascetic'(Pkt.Pali)]
tha_ttha_r 'buffalo horns'; t.hat.hera 'brass worker'.
cu_d.a 'tiger's mane'; rebus: cu_l.a 'furnace'.
kolmo 'three (faces)'; rebus: kolimi 'forge'.
mukha 'face'; rebus: mu~h 'ingot'.
kamarsa_la 'waistband'; kamar 'blacksmith'; sala 'workshop'.
kod.u 'bracelet'; rebus: kod. 'workshop'.
(L) {N} ``^raised ^platform for ^puja''. #34282; rebus: mand.a_ 'warehouse'.
me_t.u = a heap, stack; rick, as of hay (Te.) ; rebus: med. 'iron'.
krammara 'look back' (as antelope); rebus: kamar, karma_ra 'blacksmith'.
mr..eka 'antelope'; rebus: milakkhu 'copper' (Pali)
kol 'tiger'; rebus: kol 'alloy of five metals, furnace'.
kat.avai 'leap, jump'; rebus: kad.avu 'turning lathe'; vikalpa: d.a_t. to hop, jump (Kond.a); rebus: datu 'mineral'.
ibha 'elephant'; rebus: ib 'iron'.
bara_ boar (A.B.);rebus: bhar 'oven'.
kat.iya_ buffalo heifer (G.); rebus: ka_t.i, furnace (trench)(Ta.)
khag 'rhinoceros'; rebus: kang 'portable furnace'.

Excerpts from notes after J.M.Kenoyer on and on Sarasvati civilization images and a few hieroglyphs from Sarasvati writing system.

Thursday, April 3, 2008

Revival of River Sarasvati begins in Haryana (7 April 2008)

Revival of River Sarasvati begins in Haryana (7 April 2008)


Monday, March 31, 2008

Sarasvati hieroglyph dictionary (Update 31 March 2008)

A Sarasvati Hieroglyph Dictionary
-- (Vol. 4 of the Quintet: Indus Script encodes mleccha speech) (Updated 31 March 2008)

It was noted earlier that the Dictionary is a work in process. This is the first comprehensive update since 6 March 2008 (Mahas'ivaratri day) when the 5 volumes were published.

Updates include: reading of Svastika glyphs, endless-knot glyphs, headless-body-glyph, Bhirrana and other Sarasvati river basin site epigraphs, tree hieroglyphs, reading of orthographically identified glyptic elements in compositions.

The underlying hypotheses of the analysis of core legacy from the linguistic area of this civilization; and presented herein are two-fold:

--that the Bharatiya languages constitute a linguistic area;
--that the writing system consisted of hieroglyphs, intended to record property transactions of artisans -- smiths in particular. [cf. Seal impression from Ur showing a water-carrier and an enclosure of two brackets: () ]

This crucial evidence of the continuum of Sarasvati culture in India enables linking Sarasvati writing system -- mlecchita vikalpa with Sarasvati lingua franca -- mleccha.

Hundreds of epigraphs (in particular, those with emphatic, unambiguous, orthographically identifiable glyptic elements) are read rebus using mleccha speech related to the repertoire of mine-workers, metal-workers, metals, minerals, alloys, furnaces.

The complete set of volumes can be downloaded from: (Updated 31 March 2008)

This is a tribute to ancient artisans. Two revolutionary civilizational discoveries occurred in the 3rd millennium BCE: one was the technique of alloying metals and the second was the invention of a writing system.

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
31 March 2008

Read this doc on Scribd: dictionary1