Monday, March 31, 2008

Sarasvati hieroglyph dictionary (Update 31 March 2008)

A Sarasvati Hieroglyph Dictionary
-- (Vol. 4 of the Quintet: Indus Script encodes mleccha speech) (Updated 31 March 2008)

It was noted earlier that the Dictionary is a work in process. This is the first comprehensive update since 6 March 2008 (Mahas'ivaratri day) when the 5 volumes were published.

Updates include: reading of Svastika glyphs, endless-knot glyphs, headless-body-glyph, Bhirrana and other Sarasvati river basin site epigraphs, tree hieroglyphs, reading of orthographically identified glyptic elements in compositions.

The underlying hypotheses of the analysis of core legacy from the linguistic area of this civilization; and presented herein are two-fold:

--that the Bharatiya languages constitute a linguistic area;
--that the writing system consisted of hieroglyphs, intended to record property transactions of artisans -- smiths in particular. [cf. Seal impression from Ur showing a water-carrier and an enclosure of two brackets: () ]

This crucial evidence of the continuum of Sarasvati culture in India enables linking Sarasvati writing system -- mlecchita vikalpa with Sarasvati lingua franca -- mleccha.

Hundreds of epigraphs (in particular, those with emphatic, unambiguous, orthographically identifiable glyptic elements) are read rebus using mleccha speech related to the repertoire of mine-workers, metal-workers, metals, minerals, alloys, furnaces.

The complete set of volumes can be downloaded from: (Updated 31 March 2008)

This is a tribute to ancient artisans. Two revolutionary civilizational discoveries occurred in the 3rd millennium BCE: one was the technique of alloying metals and the second was the invention of a writing system.

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
31 March 2008

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Sunday, March 30, 2008

Reading glyphs on epigraphs found on Sarasvati River Basin sites

Reading hieroglyphs found principally on Sarasvati River Basin sites

Read ebook...

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Friday, March 28, 2008

Reading Sarasvati hieroglyphs on Bhirrana seals

Reading Sarasvati hieroglyphs on Bhirrana seals

Photographs of artefacts and four seals discovered in Bhirrana (2005), see and read e-monograph...

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Wednesday, March 26, 2008

Rebus readings: Sarasvati hieroglyph compositions

Rebus readings: Sarasvati hieroglyph compositions is an ebook on: Orthographic elements in Sarasvati hieroglyptic compositions included in

The objective of this ebook (addendum to Sarasvati hieroglyph dictionary) is to demonstrate that each one of the orthographic elements identified from epigraphs of Sarasvati civilization, can be read rebus in mleccha speech, and the Sarasvati hieroglyptic compositions explained in reference to mine-work/smithy/forge/mint working with minerals, metals, alloys. The pictorial motifs are so emphatic and precise, that they dominate the entire limited space offered by inscribed objects, thus relegating the ‘signs’ to a very small left-over space. Pictorial motifs are definitive messages complemented by the signs also as hieroglyphs.

Read the ebook...

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman 27 March 2008

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Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Orthographic elements in Sarasvati hieroglyptic compositions

Orthographic elements in Sarasvati hieroglyptic compositions

The following orthographic analyses on specific examples of writing system are after Huntington, based principally on Huntington archives and Parpola pictorial corpus of inscriptions. The objective is to demonstrate that each one of the elements can be read rebus, and the Sarasvati hieroglyptic compositions explained in reference to mine-work/smithy/forge/mint working with minerals, metals, alloys. The pictorial motifs are so emphatic and precise, that they dominate the entire limited space offered by inscribed objects, thus relegating the ‘signs’ to a very small left-over space. Pictorial motifs are definitive messages complemented by the signs also as hieroglyphs.

Read more in ebook… (Addendum to Sarasvati hieroglyph dictionary)

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Friday, March 21, 2008

Writing to encode mleccha speech

Writing to encode mleccha speech (and an overview of Sarasvati civilization)

ebook download:

ebook read:

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Thursday, March 20, 2008

Sarasvati hieroglyphs from Charsadda (Bala Hissar)

The reading of a glyph showing three-numeral-strokes as a hieroglyph can be demonstrated from the above seal of Sarasvati civilization. Source:

The hieroglyphs are: heifer, standard in front, three-numeral-strokes, rim of pot ligatured to water-carrier glyph.


Set 1: damr.a 'heifer'; rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper'; kod. 'one horn'; rebus: kod. 'workshop'; kamarsa_la 'pannier'; rebus: kamar 'smith' + sala 'workshop'; sangad.a 'lathe, gimlet, portable furnace'; janga_d.iyo 'guard who accompanies treasure'.

Set 2: kolmo 'three'; rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'; kand. kan-ka 'rim of jar'; rebus: kan.d. 'fire altar, furnace' + khanaka 'mine'; kut.i 'female water-carrier'; rebus: kut.hi 'smelter furnace for ore'.

The sets of hieroglyphs thus, constitute a calling card of a smith-miner who has a mine-pit-mouth smelter and a smithy/forge to work with copper ores and metal.

Similar depiction of the glyph of three numeral strokes occurs in the following instance of a figurine from Charsadda (Bala Hissar). Sarasvati hieroglyphs from Charsadda (Bala Hissar)

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Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Buffalo horns as Sarasvati hieroglyph (brassworker)

ta_tta_ru 'buffalo horns' (Munda); rebus: t.hat.hero 'brassworker' (Ku.)

Listen also to the audio commentary on the Cylinder seal of Ibni-sharrum (Musée du Louvre, Département des Antiquités Orientales, Paris AO 22303); transcript is as follows:


Paul Collins

Look closely: this particularly beautiful cylinder seal shows us the epitome of fine Akkadian carving. As well it should: its inscription—contained in the rectangle on the animals' back—says that the seal belonged to king Shar-kali-sharri's scribe. Look at the modern impression made from the seal, and notice the muscles articulated on the men's bodies. They pour water from sacred pots, to quench the thirst of two water buffalo. But water buffalo were not native to Mesopotamia! These animals are depicted in a manner typical of imagery from the Indus Valley, in present-day Pakistan. This seal is a favorite of the curator of this exhibition, Joan Aruz:

Joan Aruz

If there is one object in this show that embodies the concepts that we have been trying to illuminate in this exhibit, I would have to say it's the seal of the scribe of Shar-kali-sharri. An exquisite work of art, miniature in size, monumental in effect, combining imagery that derives, perhaps, from the Indus Valley; executed in a style that expresses the highest artistic achievements of the art of the third millennium B.C.

Read this doc on Scribd: buffalohieroglyph (Buffalo shown on Sarasvati epigraphs -- or, Indus script inscriptions)

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Sunday, March 16, 2008

Reading svastika glyph as zinc, zinc retort distillation furnace Reading svastika glyph as zinc, zinc retort distillation furnace

This is an addendum to Sarasvati hieroglyph dictionary The other addenda posted at are: Tree as a Sarasvati hieroglyph Dholavira inscriptions of smithy/mint Reading new Bhirrana seals with Sarasvati hieroglyphs

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Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
17 March 2008 Sources of Zinc in Zawarnala mines, Rajasthan (Sarasvati civilization)

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Sarasvati hieroglyphs in Tepe Hissar and search for alloying metals --

Common artistic motifs on metal in Mesopotamia, Luristan, BMAC, Sarasvati hieroglyphs (including Tepe Hissar seal finds)

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Friday, March 14, 2008

Tree as a Sarasvati hieroglyph
Tree as a hieroglyph
-- Tree in mlecchita vikalpa (writing system of smiths)
Mirror: (Part of the document)

Rebus: kut.i ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)
Vikalpa: kut.i, kut.hi, kut.a, kut.ha a tree (Kaus'.); kud.a tree (Pkt.); kur.a_ tree; kar.ek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). kut.ha, kut.a (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kut.ha_ra, kut.ha, kut.aka = a tree (Skt.lex.) kut., kurun: = stump of a tree (Bond.a); khut. = id. (Or.) kut.amu = a tree (Te.lex.)

The sacredness associated with the Sarasvati hieroglyphs is exemplified by the word kole.l in Kota which means: ‘smithy, temple in Kota village’. When smithy is a temple, all devices associated with the smithy assume auspiciousness, become glyphs denoting wealth, hence, hieroglyphs. The ‘tree’ glyph is one such hieroglyph of ancient times in Sarasvati civilization.

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Oldest Animation Discovered In Iran -- goat and tree branches painted on a bowl Wednesday, March 12, 2008 (Animation magazine)By: Ryan Ball
Read rebus?

Excerpted from the URL:

[quote]The oldest animation on a ceramic bowl - 9 images. The oldest animation on a ceramic bowl date back 5000 years ago which is discovered in Shahr-e-Soukhteh, burnt city. [unquote]

As noted earlier, the glyphs shown on this bowl, tree, tree branches and the jumping goat are all mleccha hieroglyphs. Hence the importance and relevance of the scene in a metallurgical/trade of metals context.

k 17 March 2008 (See the attached notes on Shahr-i-Soktha which has yielded the bowl with Sarasvati hieroglyphs of tree, tree branches and goat).

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Seal, Suse, 3rd mil BC. National Museum of Iran.

"L'art proto-élamite se caractérise par l'importance des motifs animaliers. Si le style se rapproche des périodes précédentes, les animaux remplacent l'être humain dans les activités quotidiennes, et les figures mythologiques sont animales. Ceci se manifeste dans tous les domaines artistiques, notamment dans la glyptique (avec aussi une prédilection pour les paysages végétaux), et aussi dans la statuaire. C'est avant tout le site de Suse qui a livré le plus grand nombre d'emprunte de sceaux-cylindres et de statuettes proto-élamites, réalisées sur un support en pierre ou en métal. Les animaux représentés sont souvent des félins (le thème du lion portant une montagne est très présent dans la glyptique), et aussi des bouquetins, des taureaux et aussi des sangliers."

The presence of scorpion, plant or tree, goat, bull (?), tiger (?), eagle (?) point to the probability of these glyphs being Sarasvati hieroglyphs in a metallurgical context.

Thursday, March 13, 2008

Dholavira inscriptions of smithy/mint

Reading Dholavira sign board and Dholavira seals with Sarasvati hieroglyphs

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Note: If the sixth sign from left is an X, it can be read: da_t.u ‘cross’; rebus: datu ‘minerals.
If the first glyph on the right refers to a hook of tongs, it is read rebus: kor. hook of tongs (Ko.); kut.ilika_- smith's tongs (Skt.)(DEDR 2052). Rebus: kod. ‘workshop’


Reading new Bhirrana seals with Sarasvati hieroglyphs

Reading new Bhirrana seals with Sarasvati hieroglyphs
-- Addenda 2 to Indus script encodes mleccha speech

Read this doc on Scribd: addenda214march2008

The 'fish' is enclosed within and ligatured to 'parenthesis' glyph. if ( ) is an orthographically separated oval, the lexeme evoked may be 'bent, crooked'. The lexemes related to this semantic and related rebus rebus readings are:

kut.ila = bent, crooked (Skt.) kut.ila (Skt. Rasaratna samuccaya, 5.205)
kut.ila, katthi_l = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. a_ra-ku_t.a, ‘brass’ (Skt.)]


The antelope glyph on one of the Bhirrana seals (as part of a composite animal with three heads) has been read a mr..eka and read rebus: milakkhu 'copper'

Abhidha_na Cinta_man.i of Hemachandra states that mleccha, mlecchas’a_varabheda_khyam and mleccha-mukha are three of the twelve names for copper: ta_mram (IV.105-6: ta_mram mlecchamukham s'ulvam rakt tam dvas.t.amudumbaram; mlecchas'a_varabheda_khyam markata_syam kani_yasam; brahmavarddhanam varis.t.ham si_santu si_sapatrakam).

Theraga_tha_ in Pali refers to a banner which was dyed the colour of copper: milakkhurajanam (The Thera andTheriga_tha_, PTS, verse 965: milakkhurajanam rattam garahanta_ sakam dhajam; tithiya_nam dhajam keci dha_ressanty avada_takam; K.R.Norman, tr., Theraga_tha_: Finding fault with their own banner which is dyed the colour of copper, some will wear the white banner of sectarians).[cf. Asko and Simo Parpola, On the relationship of the Sumerian Toponym Meluhha and Sanskrit Mleccha, Studia Orientalia, vol. 46, 1975, pp. 205-38).

Wednesday, March 12, 2008

A Sarasvati (Indus) seal on auction : possessions of a miner-smith

A Sarasvati (Indus) seal on auction: possessions of a miner-smith (Addenda: Indus script encodes mleccha speech)

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Sarasvati: Vedic river and Bharatiya civilization

Sarasvati: Vedic river and Bharatiya civilization

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Soma, electrum

Soma, electrum

Rigvedic soma as a metallurgical allegory: soma, electrum is deified

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Soma, ams'u

A significant attribute of ams’u is s’ukram as noted by Rishi Atri Bhauma, devataa vis’veda:

das’a kshipo yunjate baahoo adrim somasya yaa s’amitaaraa suhastaa
madhvor sugabhastir girishthaam canis’cadad duduhe s’ukram ams’uh

RV 5.043.04 The ten express of the juice, (the fingers), and the two arms of the priests, which are the dexterous immolators of the Soma, take hold of the stone; the exulting, skilful-fingered (priest) milks the mountain-born juice of the sweet Soma, and that Soma (yields its) pure juice. [The text has only s'ukram am.s'uh = sa ca'h s'ukram nirmalam rasam dugdhe, and that Soma has milked the pure juice; or am.s'u may be an epithet of adhvaryu, the extensively present priest, am.s'ur vya_pto adhvaryuh]. Alternative trans.: The ten fingers, the two arms, harness the pressing stone; they are the preparers of the Soma, with active hands. The one with good hands has milked the mountain-grown sap . . . the amsu has yielded the dazzling.

The lexeme s’ukram is interpreted as ‘pure’. In the alternative translation, s’ukram is interpreted as ‘dazzling’. This latter semantics related to ‘brightness’ is attested in RV 5.045.10 Su_rya has ascended above the glistening water, as soon as he has put to his bright-backed steeds; sage (worshippers) have drawn him, like a ship, across the sea; the waters hearing his commands, have come down. [Su_rya has ascended: su_ryo aruhat s'ukram = su_rya has mounted the bright water, that is, he has become everywhere visible, but it may be an allusion to the sun's rising apparently out of the sea].

The attribute s’ukram becomes meaningful in the context of a recently-discovered manuscript attributed to Maharshi Bharadwaja (anonymous text is dated to 1931 and attributed to the dictations of the late Pandit Subbaraya Shastri of Anekal – 1855 to 1940 CE), which is said to be titled Ams’u Bodhini as Chapter 1 of Yantra Sarvasva, followed by Vaimaanika S’aastra (quoting Lohatantra), Kritaka Vajra Nirn.aya. The text refers to tamogarbha loha (light-weight alloy), pancha loha (copper alloy, malleable and corrosion resistant to moisture and salt water), arama tamra (alloy of copper, zinc, lead, iron for light absorption).

In the Babylonian Talmud (+2nd century), asemon is a commonly used word referring to bullion (gold, silver or mixed.) Leiden X papyrus (c. +3rd century) says: “no.8. It will be asem, (i.e. electrum, an alloy of gold and silver)which will deceive even the artisans (a tin-copper-gold-silver alloy); no.12. Falsification of gold (a zinc-copper-lead-gold alloy)...” (cited in Needham, Joseph,SCC, vol.5, Pt. II, pp. 18-21). “The existence of this alloy (assem) may have been the original cause for the suggestion of transmutation since by adding silver to it, one would get a metal nearly identical with the crude silver from the mine; and by adding gold, something indistinguishable from gold. [The paucity of the Egyptian language may perhaps have been responsible for a confusion. Gold was the ‘yellow metal’, and the alloy produced was also a ‘yellow metal’.]” (Hopkins, A.J., Alchemy, 1967, pp. 103-104).Metals were not fully distinguished from their alloys; all carried names such as aes, electrum etc. Ayas meant metal. Asem denoted the natural alloy of silver and gold; it also meant any bright metal made with copper, tin, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. Twelve or thirteen different alloys were called asem (Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilization in China, vol. 5, pt. II, p.45). Asem was Soma; this hypothesis will be the running-thread of this review of the alchemical tradition of ancient India, dating back to R.gveda. Hopkins states: “At Gungeria, in district Balaghat, 102 pieces of silver plates were discovered along with 424 copper implements. The silver was found to be admixed with 3.7% gold (...1100 B.C. - 800 B.C.). The presence of 3.7% gold in these silver pieces indicates the extraction of silver from electrum...” (Smith, V., 1905,Indian Antiquary, pp. 233 ff.; loc.cit. Bharadwaj, H.C., Aspects of Ancient Indian Technology, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979, p. 138). The parallels with the Indian alchemical tradition are apparent: tan:kam gold in dravidian-Chinese becomes borax (a reagent!) in indo-aryan, gold coin; the terms hiran.yam, hema-bìjam, connote the yellow metal. The word, thong, means ‘copper’ in Thai language.

na_kam black lead; zinc; prepared arsenic; sulphur; na_kacam, tu_riyam, vermilion, lead (Tamil.lex.)

Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Sarasvati: A search for the Vedic River (2000)

The book, River Sarasvati: Legend, myth and reality, was published in 1999. Publisher: All-India Saraswat Foundation and All-India Saraswat Cultural Organisation, Mumbai.

The book, Sarasvati, was published in 2000. Publisher: Babasaheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti, Bangalore. Further research results have been documented in the 7-volume encyclopaedic work (2003).

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

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Sarasvati in 7 volumes (2003). Author: S. Kalyanaraman

Kalyanaraman, S., Sarasvati, 2003. An encyclopaedic work in 7 volumes [Bangalore, Babasaheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti]
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Harvard Donkey Trial and researches on domestication of donkey, horse

Harvard Donkey Trial and researches on domestication of donkey, horse

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Monday, March 10, 2008

The ageless tale of a Bhirrana potsherd; dance as a hieroglyph Excavation site: Bhirrana Images of site and artefacts discovered

Why is a 'dancing girl' glyph shown on a potsherd discovered at Bhirrana?

Dancers are depicted as hieroglyphs on a tablet m0493 as shown below.

m0493Bt Pict-93: Three dancing figures in a row.
Text 2843

Glyph: Three dancers. Kolmo ‘three’; meD ‘to dance’
Rebus: kolami ‘furnace, smithy’; meD ‘iron’

Sign 44 (this glyph could be compared with the orthography of three dancers in a row; the glyph is a ligature showing a 'dance step' and a rimless pot). Glyphs: meD 'dance' (Remo); rebus: meD 'iron'; bat.a 'pot'; bat.hi 'furnace'.

So, why a dancing girl? Because, depiction of a dance pose is a hieroglyph to represent what was contained in the pot. The glyph encodes the mleccha word for 'iron': med.

Glyph: meD 'to dance' (F.)[reduplicated from me-]; me id. (M.) in Remo (Munda)(Source: D. Stampe's Munda etyma)meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon (Te.); meṭṭu step (Ga.); mettunga steps (Ga.). maḍye to trample, tread (Malt.)(DEDR 5057)
Rebus: meD 'iron' (Mundari. Remo.)

Bhirrana find; the potsherd with the engraving.

— Photo: ASI sequence: The “Dancing Girl” statuette made of bronze.

The ageless tale a potsherd from Bhirrana tells

T.S. Subramanian (The Hindu, 12 Sept. 2007)

CHENNAI: In a rare discovery, the Archaeological Survey of India has found at Bhirrana, a Harappan site in Fatehabad district in Haryana, a red potsherd with an engraving that resembles the ‘Dancing Girl,’ the iconic bronze figurine of Mohenjodaro. While the bronze was discovered in the early 1920s, the potsherd with the engraving was discovered during excavations by the ASI in 2004-05.

A few hundred kilometres separate Mohenjodaro, now in Pakistan, and Bhirrana. The potsherd, discovered by a team led by L.S. Rao, Superintending Archaeologist, Excavation Branch, ASI, Nagpur, belonged to the Mature Harappan period. Mr. Rao called it the “only one of its kind” because “no parallel to the Dancing Girl, in bronze or any other medium, was known” until the latest find.

In an article in the latest issue of Man and Environment (Volume XXXII, No.1, 2007), published by the Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies, Pune, Mr. Rao says, “... the delineation [of the lines in the potsher d] is so true to the stance, including the disposition of the hands, of the bronze that it appears that the craftsman of Bhirrana had first-hand knowledge of the former.”

In his article, Mr. Rao has said the bronze was justly known for its stance and workmanship. “With its tilted head, flexed legs, right hand resting on the hip and the left suspended by its side, the bronze sculpture, although nude, enjoys a modest ornamentation with a necklace, wristlets and armlets. A statuette of 11 cm in height, it occupies a unique position in the sculptural art of the Mature Harappan period.”

Mr. Rao called the engraving on the potsherd “a highly stylised figure whose torso resembles that of an hour-glass or two triangles meeting at their apex.” Upon the horizontal shoulder line, a partly damaged round head was visible. In consonance with the bronze, “here too, the right hand is akimbo, and the left is suspended by its side. Slight oblique strokes on the right upper arm are suggestive of the presence of armlets. The lower portion of the body is missing owing to damage on the sherd. The clothing is indicated by horizontal hatchings on the chest and abdomen, and vertical hatchings on the thighs.”

Mr. Rao called Bhirrana an “exemplary” and “paradigmatic” site that stood out on two more grounds. For the first time in the post-Independence period, artefacts called Hakra ware, belonging to the pre-early Harappan period, were found as independent, stratified deposits at Bhirrana. This and other discoveries established the presence of an unbroken cultural sequence at Bhirrana: from the Hakra ware culture and its evolution into early Harappan, early Mature Harappan and Mature Harappan until the site was abandoned.

The discoveries of these periods include underground dwelling pits; house-complexes on streets; a fortification wall; bichrome pottery; terracotta cups; arrowheads, fish-hooks and bangles, all in copper; incised copper celts; terracotta toy-carts and animal figurines; and beads of semi-precious stones.

Seals made of steatite of the Mature Harappan period were found. They have animal figures such as a unicorn, a deer with wavy antlers, a bull with outsized horns, and an animal with three heads — of a deer, a unicorn and a bull. The seals also have typical Harappan legends on them. All these were found during excavations in 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06.

Mr. Rao and colleagues have written on their work in Puratattva (Nos. 34, 35 and 36), a bulletin of the Indian Archaeological Society.

Friday, March 7, 2008

Indus script encodes mleccha speech ( tribute to artisans who invented alloying and a writing system, ca. 4k yrs ago

A tribute to artisans who invented alloying and a writing system, ca. 4000 years ago

Indus script encodes mleccha speech (

URLs for the 5 volumes of Indus Script encodes mleccha speech:

This is a tribute to ancient artisans. Two revolutionary civilizational discoveries occurred in the 3rd millennium BCE: one was the technique of alloying metals and the second was the invention of a writing system.

The work in 5 volumes, Indus scrip encodes mleccha speech proves the validity of the insight provided by Prof. James D. Muhly: "The Early Bronze Age of the 3rd millennium B.C. saw the first development of a truly international age of metallurgy... The question is, of course, why all this took place in the 3rd millennium B.C... It seems to me that any attempt to explain why things suddenly took off about 3000 B.C. has to explain the most important development, the birth of the art of writing... As for the concept of a Bronze Age one of the most significant events in the 3rd millennium was the development of true tin-bronze alongside an arsenical alloy of copper...” (J.D. Muhly, 1973, Copper and Tin, Conn.: Archon., Hamden; Transactions of Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 43) p. 221f. ) The emergence of the Iron Age (c. 1000 BCE)…’The simplicity of iron-working took metallurgy out of the palace, just as the alphabet had done for the art of writing.’ [James D. Muhly, Mining and metalwork in ancient Western Asia, p. 1517 in: Jack M. Sasson, ed., 1995, Civilizations of the ancient Near East, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, pp. 1501-1521]."The fabrication of bronze represented man's first industrial revolution centering in the use of fire...” ." (Theodore A. Wertime, The search for ancient tin: the geographic and historic boundaries, in: Alan D. Franklin, Jacqueline S. Olin and Theodore A. Wertime, eds., 1977, The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington D.C., US Government Printing Office; See Theodore W. Wertime, In search of Ana_ku, bronze-age mystery, Mid-East 8, May-June 1968, pp. 10-20; J.D. Muhly, Tin trade routes of the bronze age, American Scientist 61, July-August 1973, pp. 403-13).

The artisans of Sarasvati civilization have provided the basis for the following examples of civilizational continuities:

Glyphs on early cylinder seals of Mesopotamia (Akkadia, Susa, Elam, Anau)
Glyphs on Gundestrup cauldron
Glyphs on punch-marked coins of Asia-minor and janapada-s extending from Gandhara to Karur (on the banks of Kaveri) and in Srilanka
Glyph s’rivatsa on Sanchi torana; glyph of kaula mengro on Barhut stupa (alligator ligatured to a mollusk)
Rock-cut reservoir in Vidisha, grand anicut (kallanai on Kaveri) comparable to rock-cut reservoir of Dholavira and gabar bands on Sindhu
Glyphs of Sohgaura copper plate
Glyphs on tin ingots discovered in a ship-wreck near Haifa
Use of lost-wax (cire perdue) technique for pancaloha (five-metal alloy) sculpture-making in Swamimalai (comparable to the technique used in Sarasvati civilization)

The mleccha-speaking artisans invented alloying of metals and a writing system. Both are related as validated in the insightful, falsifiable hypothesis stated by Prof. James D. Muhly. This is thus a tribute to savants like Muhly and to the artisans of yore who have been harbingers of the industrial age, changing the lives of people for ever.

Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

PS: The book, titled: Indus script encodes mleccha speech, is in 5 volumes (including a CD for volume 5 of 5111 pages): harc copies of first 4 volumes can be obtained from Jayalakshmi Book Stores, 6 Apparsami Koil St., Mylapore, Chennai Tel. 91 44 24990539


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Epigraphica Sarasvati

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Sarasvati lingua franca, mleccha

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Indian Lexicon [A comparative dictionary of over 25 ancient Bharatiya (Indian) languages]

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